• Sinusitis - symptoms and signs of the disease

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    Sinusitis( maxillary sinusitis) - one of the most common pathologies of ENT organs. Among all sinusitis, this disease is about 80%, half of patients in ENT hospitals - patients with sinusitis.

    Etiology of the disease

    The maxillary sinus communicates with the nasal cavity through a complex system of cracks, holes and pockets through which it is drained and ventilated. Edema and inflammation in the nasal concha, for example, in the common cold, can cause violations of ventilation of the maxillary sinuses and outflow of mucus from it. Stagnation of secretion and difficult air exchange represent an excellent soil for the development of the infectious process.

    Normally, the cavity of the maxillary sinus is sterile. Potentially pathogenic microbes live in the nose and nasopharynx. Also, there is evidence that in 90% of cases a bacterial infection is preceded by a viral infection. However, not every viral or bacterial rhinitis leads to sinusitis. To develop the described disease, it is necessary to reduce the patient's immune status.

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    Symptoms and symptoms of sinusitis

    With such a disease as sinusitis, the symptoms can be divided into 2 groups of
    1. Commonly infectious signs:

    • headache,
    • fever,
    • chills,
    • weakness, sweating.

    2. Signs of local inflammation:

    • nasal obstruction, mucopurulent nasal discharge,
    • , smell impairment, up to complete loss of smell ability, and related taste discomfort,
    • severity or pressure in the upper part of the face,
    • soreness in palpation and percussion of the maxillary sinuses and the root of the nose.

    The first symptoms are usually nonspecific, but the headache is the constant companion of the disease. The pain is constant, located in the forehead or temple area, sometimes radiating to the teeth of the upper jaw.

    The severity of the pain syndrome is different, from minor pressure or bursting, to very intense pain, but in most cases this pain disrupts the well-being and performance of patients. The increase in body temperature is not a specific symptom of maxillary sinusitis, however, in terms of fever, acute sinusitis can be divided into 3 degrees of severity:

    • is mild - normal body temperature or subfebrile( up to 37 degrees),
    • mean febrile( 37-38 degrees)
    • heavy - the temperature is above 38 degrees.

    In chronic sinusitis, the symptom of fever may not be observed at all.
    Difficulty of nasal breathing can be temporary or permanent, arising from one or both sides. Causes - inflammatory swelling of the mucous membrane or a cluster of pathological secretions, as well as their combination.

    One-sided nasal congestion usually corresponds to the side of the lesion. Absence of a pathological discharge does not exclude sinus disease. It may not be with the expressed difficulty of communication of the maxillary sinus with the nasal cavity due to pronounced edema of the mucosa or significant viscosity of the secretion.

    In severe or neglected cases, swelling of the facial tissues on the side of the lesion may occur, due to the fact that the periosteum of the facial skull and the surrounding tissues are involved in the inflammatory process. Sometimes there may be a lacrimation caused by swelling of the mouth of the tear-nasal canal. The reason for the disturbance of the perception of odors is a clogging of the secret of the upper nasal passage.

    Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis

    The cause of this type of sinusitis is the caries of the teeth of the upper jaw. It is generally believed that gangrenous tooth can become a source of infection, but there is a possibility of a hidden foci of infection in the upper jaw, especially in the gum, which is activated when the immune reactivity of the organism decreases. Also, the septic focus can be hidden under the filling material of the already "treated" tooth.

    Sometimes the filling material is able to penetrate into the maxillary sinus through the dental canal when the dentist works poorly. In this case, the filling material becomes in the sinus cavity a foreign body and causes inflammation.

    Symptoms of odontogenic sinusitis have some features. This disease, which arose as a result of tooth extraction and disruption of the integrity of the sinus bone wall, proceeds with the symptoms of acute sinusitis, and sometimes quite violently.

    There is an increase in body temperature to high figures, there is pain in the cheek, signs of general intoxication. But most often, this type of sinusitis proceeds in a latent or worn out form, like a chronic inflammation, exacerbating the background of viral respiratory infections. Also, a characteristic symptom of purulent maxillary sinusitis of odontogenic nature is one-sided lesion.

    Allergic maxillary sinusitis

    There are no characteristic symptoms of allergic sinusitis. A feature of this type of sinusitis is its etiology and development mechanism. As a result of the appearance of an allergic rhinitis, there is a violation of drainage and ventilation of the maxillary sinus, and then the sinusitis flows according to the usual laws. It is worth noting that allergic sinusitis is not purulent.

    Symptoms of sinusitis in children

    Symptoms of sinusitis in adults do not differ from those of children, but the course of this disease has some features:

    • children under 3 years of age are not sick with this ailment, they have not yet developed maxillary sinus,
    • in pediatric practice, inthe difference from adults is much more frequent than acute chronic sinusitis, and they are much more violent,
    • in children is much higher risk of complicated forms of sinusitis( meningitis, osteomyelitis, sepsis, etc.),
    • odontogenic gAymoritis in children is very rare.

    Possible complications of

    First of all, sinusitis is dangerous for the spread of infection outside the sinuses:
    1. The spread of infection in the cranial cavity( has a very high percentage of lethality - up to 35%):

    • purulent meningitis( infectious inflammation of the brain membranes),
    • rhinogenic abscessBrain,

    2. Spread of infection to the orbit( often leads to loss of vision):

    • eyelids,
    • periostitis( inflammation of the periosteum) of the orbit,
    • subperiosteal abscess of the orbit,
    • phlegmon( purulent inflammation)paraorbital fiber,

    3. Rinogenous osteomyelitis of the upper jaw.
    4. Generalization of infection - sepsis.

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