Diseases of the oral cavity and their treatment
May 13, 2018
The human oral cavity performs a variety of specific functions. Indication of the well-being of the oral cavity is the condition of the mucous membrane. On the mucous membrane, all diseases of the oral cavity are usually manifested. Most pathological processes are in connection with diseases of various organs and systems of the individual, a change in his immune status.
The following factors can provoke diseases of the oral mucosa:
- Dental problems;
- Illiterate antibiotic treatment;
- Diseases of internal organs and basic systems;
- Damaging effects of hot and spicy food, alcohol, smoking;
- Various infections;
- Dehydration of the body;
- Avitaminosis of different types;
- Hormonal fluctuations;
- Genetic predisposition.
In a normal state, microorganisms live in the oral cavity, which belong to the conditionally pathogenic category. Under the influence of negative factors, some types of microflora can increase their virulence. So they go into a pathogenic state.
Conditionally pathogenic flora causes diseases of the oral cavity and tongue, called endogenous infectious. And creates conditions for external infections. With infectious diseases on the mucous membrane, viral diseases often appear.
To this group of oral diseases, stomatitis is traditionally referred. All of them are manifested as a result of improper care of the oral cavity, and also accompany some diseases of the intestine or stomach.
- Catarrhal stomatitis is manifested by painful swelling of the mucous membrane, the surface of which can cover a coating of white or yellowish color.
- Ulcerative stomatitis affects the entire mucosa. Ulceration is accompanied by an increase in lymph nodes, weakness, headaches. It occurs in people with peptic ulcer disease or with chronic enteritis.
- Aphthous stomatitis is characterized by multiple afts( erosions) on the mucosa. It can provoke oral infections, allergic reactions, imbalance in the gastrointestinal tract, and rheumatism. This type of disease begins with a malaise, a possible increase in temperature, and only then manifest aphthae.
This category includes bacterial infections, mycoses, ulcerative-necrotic variant of stomatitis, local manifestations of venereal diseases.
Most often, the mucosa is infected with the herpes virus. Usually, it seizes the space around the mouth, but in some situations, the oral cavity is affected. In these cases, the appointment of treatment should contact a specialist.
Herpes of the oral cavity is localized by aftami in the sky, cheeks, tongue, on the inner surface of the lips. Clinically, the disease manifests itself consistently in the form of a primary herpetic infection and chronic recurrent herpes. Damaged and gums - in the form of acute catarrhal gingivitis.
Fungal diseases of the oral cavity
They arise due to the appearance in the human body, and in particular in the oral cavity, yeast-like fungi. However, more than half of the population is a carrier of the fungus in an inactive state. The signal for activation is various pathologies of the body, which dramatically reduce the immune defense. As a result, oral caviadidomycosis is diagnosed, as the fungi belong to the Candida group.
There are several types of candidiasis on the clinical course.
- Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis, the so-called thrush, is diagnosed most often. The dry surface of the cheeks, the palate, the lips, the back of the tongue, is covered by a whitish coating. Patients suffer from burning sensation in the mouth, unpleasant sensations when eating. Children carry it easily, the appearance of the same disease in adults can be a consequence of diabetes, hypovitaminosis, blood disease, so treatment can be difficult.
- Acute atrophic candidiasis for a person is very painful. The mucous becomes intensely red, its surface is extremely dry, there is almost no plaque. If present, then in the folds, and its composition includes not only the fungus of the oral cavity, but also the depleted epithelium.
- Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis. When it is on the affected surface, there is an unusually thick layer of inseparable plaque in the form of plaques or nodules. When trying to remove plaque, the cleared inflamed surface bleeds.
- Chronic atrophic candidiasis occurs when long removable plate prostheses are worn. Mucous dries, inflames. Classical symptoms of this type of disease - a characteristic inflammation of the tongue, the sky, the corners of the mouth.
Because effective treatment depends on the correct definition of the causative agent of the disease, it is only a qualified physician who is entitled to prescribe it after a series of tests.
Appears in the oral cavity in the form of plaques, blisters or sores, redness. Red flat lichen of the oral cavity can occur in conjunction with the lesions of other parts of the mucous membrane and skin surface, or manifest locally. The disease is habitually combined with diabetes, liver and stomach diseases.
The basic prerequisite for its appearance by doctors is the violation of immunity. It is believed that there is a genetic predisposition to red flat lichen. The course of the disease can be acute( up to 1 month), subacute( up to 6 months), prolonged( over 6 months).
The cause of all kinds of inflammation, leading to the development of a disease, recently considered dysbiosis. This problem is a natural consequence of taking antibiotics, local antiseptics in the treatment of different variants of respiratory diseases.
Symptoms of oral dysbiosis may initially seem insignificant. This formation of painful cracks in the corners of the lips, smell from the mouth. Its development leads to loosening of the teeth, contributes to the occurrence of periodontal disease. On the teeth there is an abundant plaque, damaging the enamel surface of the teeth. In the cavity creates an unfavorable environment for the functioning of tonsils, receptors of the tongue, ligaments. It is necessary to restore healthy microflora of the mucosa in order to build a barrier in the way of most pathogenic microbes.
A healthy mucosa is an effective obstacle to the path of oral disease. Therefore, when the first symptoms of any problems are strongly recommended to visit a doctor for competent diagnosis and the appointment of an adequate course of therapy.