Why there is atrophy of the nasal mucosa, treatment of the disease

  • Why there is atrophy of the nasal mucosa, treatment of the disease

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    Atrophy of the nasal mucosa is a phenomenon in which not only the structure is disrupted, but the function of nerve endings and mucous membrane is disrupted. In this case, the person suffers not only smell, but also physiological filtration of the air, its warming, excretion of pathogenic bacteria.

    What should I do?

    In the event of such a disease, it is absolutely necessary to immediately consult an ENT doctor who will visually and visually look at the mucous nasopharynx with special tools, if necessary, prescribe additional examinations, and write out the necessary treatment for atrophy of the nasal mucosa.

    Because the disease is accompanied by the formation of a crust of pus, in no case can it be torn off. This causes an additional injury to the already damaged mucosa.

    Conservative methods of treatment of pathology are the use of antibacterial agents, which are often administered parenterally( intravenously), or intramuscularly. As a rule, these are broad-spectrum antibiotics( cephalosporins 3 and 4 generations or fluoroquinolones), which the physician must select individually for each patient, taking into account the degree of the disease and the individual intolerance of the drug. Ideally, such treatment should be used only after carrying out a bacterial culture on the sensitivity and obtaining the result.

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    Sometimes local remedies for bacteria are administered topically. Purification of the nasal cavity from purulent crust occurs with the help of special alkaline solutions.

    Treatment is necessarily a permanent sanitation and rinsing of the nasal cavity, as well as the use of reparative and healing agents. For the hygiene of the nasal cavity, salt or soda solutions, as well as furacilin, manganese, hydrogen peroxide( 3%), iodine-containing products without ethyl are suitable in such cases. You can add a few drops of celandine or aloe during washing. Irrigating with saline is also used.

    Good results give the application of some methods of physiotherapy. For example, there is a significant improvement after ionophoresis and diathermy. Some doctors recommend that such patients purchase an ionizer for home use.

    The use of oil drops - sea-buckthorn, dog-rose, peach or olive oil, can also be impregnated with tampons and placed in the nose. It is appropriate for such a pathology to make inhalations with tea tree oil. Alkaline or oil inhalations are also used as recommended by the doctor.

    Very effective washing of the nose with sea water. It has antiseptic properties, helps to get rid of pathogenic microflora and pollution, removes inflammation and improves local recovery processes. When sanatorium-resort treatment it is useful to do a nose wash with mineral waters of local sources.

    Suppression of proteolytic microorganisms is achieved by applying glucose solution with glycerin to the mucosa. A shortage of some elements is supplemented with preparations of iron and vitamin D. To improve the general condition, it is recommended to take multivitamin complexes.

    To achieve positive results, treatment should be conducted in courses, for two months, three times a year.

    Surgical procedures are also used. The most famous and popular type of atrophy of this kind is the Young method. It consists in the artificial narrowing of the nasal cavity and is used in very neglected cases.

    It is completely unacceptable to use vasoconstrictive agents in the form of drops during the treatment of atrophy of the nasal mucosa!

    Complete recovery from atrophy does not occur, but with adequate treatment, the process can be suspended and maintained the patient's condition at a satisfactory level. Sometimes there are cases that the initial stages of this illness were during pregnancy or after childbirth.

    How does atrophy of the nasal mucosa manifest itself?

    Despite the fact that the description of the disease, similar to the atrophy of the nasal mucosa, has been encountered since ancient times, the true mechanism of its development has not yet been studied in detail. There are assumptions that neurovegetative, neuroendocrine and other types of disorders are involved in this, which are under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary department of the central nervous system.

    Symptoms of atrophy in the nasal mucosa are as follows:

    • There are crusts of green or yellow, mucus-purulent nature, which are difficult to remove;
    • There is a fetid odor from the nose, which the patient himself does not feel;
    • There is a loss of smell, with complete atrophy anosmia becomes irreversible.
    • Nasal passages widen as nasal septum destruction or perforation of the nasal septum occurs;
    • The cartilage and bones forming the nasal cavity are destroyed;
    • Attachment of other diseases - eustachiitis, tubo-otitis, laryngitis, etc.
    • Manifestation of a picture of atrophic rhinitis with a rhinoscopy.

    People with this pathology experience dryness, burning or itching in the nose, too free passage of air through it. They are more likely than others to have inflammatory pulmonary diseases, since the natural barrier is broken, and the pathogenic microflora passes directly into the bronchi.

    What are the causes of atrophy of the nasal mucosa?

    There are many factors that can lead to the development of a disease such as atrophy of the nasal mucosa:

    • Hereditary predisposition. If close family members have atrophic diseases of the nose, then their relatives also have a high likelihood of developing the same.
    • Race. It was reliably noted that the propensity for atrophy of the nasal mucosa is more inclined to representatives of the Mongoloid and Caucasoid race.
    • Disturbances of the hormonal balance. It is often observed during puberty ripening and in women during menopause.
    • Consequences of radiation therapy or surgical intervention with removal of the nasal concha.
    • Autoimmune diseases.
    • Chronic or acute infections of the nasopharynx.
    • Harmful habits( tobacco smoking, drug addiction).
    • Diabetes mellitus.
    • Insufficiency of certain substances - lack of iron or vitamin D.
    • Chronic allergic rhinitis.
    • Complicated acute viral infection.
    • Abuse of vasoconstrictive drops.

    A long-gone stage of the disease can lead to the development of complete atrophy of the nasopharynx, which often results in the adherence of chronic diseases of neighboring organs and the violation of their functions.

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