Atrophic gastritis: symptoms and causes of the disease
Atrophic gastritis is the most common diagnosis among all diseases of the stomach. Statistics show that three-quarters of all gastritis is atrophic.
This pathological process is characterized by lesions of the gastric mucosa, when it is damaged and degeneration of the glandular mucosa, the proliferation of connective tissue and the replacement of these glands. This process is called atrophy.
It is proved that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is one of the causes of stomach diseases. But with atrophic gastritis, a decrease in immune activity occurs, and then antibodies appear that affect the stomach glands, which leads to atrophy.
Symptoms of atrophic gastritis
At diagnosis of atrophic gastritis symptoms at the initial stage are practically absent. They do not appear as long as there is a superficial lesion of the mucosa, but with the deepening of the process the symptoms of this disease will be very characteristic. Typical complaints include the following:
- Heartburn and eructation. With atrophic gastritis, a belch with a sour and unpleasant aftertaste occurs after a regular meal. Heartburn with high acidity is accompanied by unpleasant, not extinguished even by medications heartburn.
- Heaviness in the stomach. In patients suffering from atrophic gastritis, taking a small amount of liquid or solid food, is accompanied by a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region. The feeling of a full stomach causes a lot of discomfort. Therefore, in most cases, people with atrophic gastritis suffer from a weight deficit. Gravity in the stomach is the most frequent and early manifestation of a symptom of atrophic gastritis.
- Bowel dysfunction. Violation of the work of the stomach entails a violation of the functions of the lower parts, that is, the intestine. Patients complain of an irregular stool - diarrhea alternates with constipation. Gaseous formation, a strong unpleasant peristalsis, gives themselves away as a rumbling and gurgling of poorly digested food. Frequent complications with gastritis are dysbiosis of the intestine.
- Change the general status. Progression of the disease will not affect the general condition of the patient. In fact, if vitamins, minerals and other nutrients are not absorbed or absorbed in part, then B12 deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, hypovitaminosis, vitamin deficiencies, vitamin C and A deficiency will develop, which will lead to a decrease in immunity, vision, changecondition of the skin, nails, hair.
- Following are common symptoms with other diseases: weakness, nausea, drowsiness, sweating, fast fatigue, dizziness. Many patients suffering from this disease complain of poor appetite, salivation, bad breath and smack. At inspection the tongue is atrophic, polished. When the disease worsens, it becomes covered with a white coating.
- Pain symptom. Pain among signs of atrophic gastritis is not a defining symptom. That is, with this form of gastritis is rare, but in rare cases, patients can complain of pain in the epigastric pulling, unpleasant, obtuse nature.
Varieties of chronic atrophic gastritis
An atrophic process can affect any parts of the stomach. Types of atrophy can be established only through the diagnostic method - fibrogastroenoscopy, which will indicate localization and the nature of atrophy. To clarify the diagnosis for the purpose of differential diagnosis, biopsy and PH-metry of gastric juice are performed.
An antral atrophic species is characterized by the presence of a lesion zone in the antrum or pyloric section( the site of the stomach's transition to the duodenum) of the stomach and indicates progression and neglect of the process. It is from the antral department that the process of atrophy begins, and then, in the absence of treatment, captures the entire stomach. With this form of gastritis, more profound inflammatory changes occur in the gastric mucosa and glandular cells, followed by scar changes of the affected tissue.
The glandular cells of the antrum mucosa in the stomach normally produce mucus, which provides protection of the stomach. In connection with the degenerative process that occurs in the glandular cells, the secretion of mucus is reduced and the acidity level is increased.
Focal atrophic is characterized by the presence of small foci of lesions of the glandular cells of the gastric mucosa and sometimes replaces them with simple epithelium. At a gastroscopy sites of an atrophy mucous and glandular cells are found out that is accompanied by destruction of the cells secreting pepsin and hydrochloric acid. This leads to a decrease in the production of hydrochloric acid and a decrease in acidity. It is believed that focal atrophic antral gastritis is the initial stage of the disease.
Diffuse atrophic gastritis is a common pathology in which the inflammatory process seizes the entire mucosal surface of the stomach. This disease is considered precancerous.
Atrophic gastritis with high acidity is characterized by the defeat of a certain type of glandular cells. Symptomatic in this form of the disease is more vivid, patients complain of burning in the stomach area, incessant heartburn, as there is a reflux of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus.
There is also a pain in the area of the stomach, nausea, a feeling of heaviness, an extension of the body. Formed ulcers resemble the symptoms of peptic ulcer. Atrophic hyperplastic gastritis is also called polyposis. This disease reveals the phenomenon of atrophy and benign hyperplasia.