Symptoms, causes and prevention of hypertension
The etiology of arterial hypertension has already been studied. The factors provoking the diseases are identified, certain causes that cause the pressure increase are indicated. The easiest way to explain why there is symptomatic arterial hypertension, in a different way called secondary. It is more difficult to find out the etiology of primary hypertension. However, with some difference, they are united by the same thing - the increase in blood pressure. Knowing the symptoms of the disease and its causes, it is not difficult to create a program to prevent arterial hypertension.
What are the causes of hypertension?
There are two types of hypertension - primary( essential) and secondary( symptomatic).If the etiology of the latter is approximately comprehensible, then the causes of arterial hypertension originating primarily are not fully understood. However, there are known factors that cause an increase in blood pressure.
- Heredity, namely the presence of a genetic mutation of genes and angiotensin receptors
- Smoking.nicotine increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system
- Excessive consumption of alcohol, salt leads to a fluid retention in the body
- Obesity, hypodynamia - increases the heart load
- Stress - causes an increase in the amount of adrenaline in the blood
- Gender and age of the person at a young age come first place secondary hypertension, caused by bad habits or congenital malformations of the cardiovascular system, and after forty years of importance has atherosclerosis.
If we talk about the etiopathogenesis of arterial hypertension, we should recall the neurogenic theory of GF Lang and AL Myasnikov. According to it, as a result of the action of stimuli, under the influence of provoking factors, steady excitation appears in the nerve centers. This ultimately leads to an increase in blood pressure.
A significant role in etiopathogenesis is played by atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels, which causes hypoxia of the vasomotor centers, which also contributes to the development of hypertension. The same atherosclerosis suppresses the depressor function of the arch of the aorta and the sinocarotid zone.
As already mentioned above, symptomatic arterial hypertension arises always again. The disease is preceded by any systemic disorders: the pathology of the vascular system( sclerosis, damage to large arteries), diseases of the nervous system, kidney disease, kidney ischemia, endocrine disorders, medication.
Symptoms of the disease
There are common symptoms of hypertension, characteristic of any kind of this disease.
- Headache is the most frequent complaint of patients. The pain can be pulsating, prolonged, or felt as a squeezing of the head. It arises in moments of physical and emotional stress
- Shortness of breath, this symptom also appears during physical exertion, reporting the presence of heart failure
- Unpleasant sensations in the cardiac region also report a heart failure. They arise not only during emotional stress, but also at rest. Pain can not be quenched with nitroglycerin
- Swelling is a common symptom in renoparenchymal and vasorenal hypertension, as they are caused by impaired renal function. As a result, the amount of fluid in the body increases.
- Reducing visual acuity, as well as flashing of "flies" before the eyes: high blood pressure adversely affects the condition of the tender vessels of the retina.
Special attention deserves special types of arterial hypertension( malignant, systolic and resistant), as well as hypertension in the elderly.
1 ) Malignant arterial hypertension is a disease characterized by a significant increase in blood pressure for a long time. The condition is accompanied by damage to the eyes and kidneys with the rapid development of renal failure. In the absence of treatment, patients live no more than two years.
Symptoms: pale skin, persistent increase in blood pressure to high limits( 200-300 / 140-160 mm Hg), blood pressure does not decrease even in the morning, encephalopathy with impaired consciousness, loss of vision, kidney damage, dyspnea.
2) Systolic arterial hypertension is a condition characterized by an increase in systolic pressure with normal diastolic pressure. According to the IKK them. AL Myasnikova, this type of hypertension is mainly found in people older than 50 years, which is associated with age-related changes in the vascular bed.
Symptoms: blood pressure in the range of 160-200 / 60-90 mm.gt;a frequent increase in blood pressure during mental stress, including those caused by the appearance of a white coat, headache, noise in the head, pulsation, dizziness.
3) Resistance arterial hypertension is a disease in which all measures taken to reduce blood pressure have not had the desired effect. These include the elimination of provoking factors, rational therapy, including at least three drugs. This type of hypertension can be both pseudo-resistant, caused by errors in the measurement of blood pressure and the choice of drugs for treatment, and true. True resistance hypertension can be caused by baroreflex deficiency or physiological resistance to drugs, due to genetic characteristics or some drug interactions.
4) Arterial hypertension in the elderly. Hypertension in persons older than 65 years can be both systolic and mixed( systolic and diastolic).In elderly people, other criteria for increasing blood pressure are above 160/90 mm.gt;Art. Reducing the elasticity of the vessels, reducing the function of the kidneys, sclerosis of the arteries feeding the brain - all this is the cause of hypertension of such patients. A frequent symptom in this case is dizziness with a sharp change in the position of the body.
Prevention of arterial hypertension
Arterial hypertension is a disease that is better to be prevented as much as possible than after a lifetime of treatment. What measures include the prevention of hypertension?
- Elimination of risk factors: rejection of bad habits, moderate physical activity, rational nutrition, reduced salt intake, psychological relief, hypo cholesterol diet
- Early diagnosis of hypertension, timely medical check-up
- Continuous blood pressure control
- Compliance with doctor's recommendations
- If necessary,preventive drugs.
Each person should find out if they have any symptoms of hypertension and see a doctor for a plan of adequate treatment. After the normalization of pressure, it is important to take care of your health, avoiding situations that cause an increase in blood pressure.