What is the atrophy of the muscles of the face and how is it manifested?
Atrophy of the facial muscles - this is a fairly rare phenomenon, there is such a disease mainly in women, it develops in childhood or adolescence. The cause of the pathology is certainly unknown, but there are suggestions that scleroderma is the result of exposure to the trigeminal nerve infection, trauma, or abnormal endocrine function.
There are data according to which defeat can occur after severe hypothermia of the neck, head or ears.
How does the disease develop?
This kind of atrophy develops gradually, with the destruction of subcutaneous tissue, muscle tissue and bones. The process usually takes place on one side, often on the left.
It is believed that injuries and other effects serve only as an impetus to the emergence of destructive changes, but in fact they are a sign of a violation of the function of the autonomic nervous system.
There is a gradual appearance of asymmetry of the facial part of the skull. First, the thinning of the subcutaneous fat occurs, and the skin on the side of the lesion becomes like parchment paper, which begins to form small creases at any grimace. There is a change in the color of the skin, they become grayish or brownish.
Even more drying out of the skin contributes to the death of sebaceous glands. On the side that began to atrophy, there is a lack of hair - eyebrows and eyelashes. Sometimes, with joining to the pathological process of the upper jaw, the suborbital area underwent the occlusion. Over time, the process can move to the second part of the face, and then to the neck and muscles of the trunk.
At the very beginning of the pathological process, sometimes a healthy part is considered a patient when it seems as if swollen. For such a patient is characterized by a myopathic face - the absence of frontal folds, not completely closing eye cracks, open mouth. When you try to smile, it stretches into a horizontal line, without the usual lifting of the corners of the lips. It is not possible to fold your lips with a tube or blow out a burning match. When examined, the skin is very thin, the areas of peeling are visible, the touch is dry.
Atrophy of facial muscles is usually not accompanied by pain syndrome, even with its progression. Sometimes there is a slight tingling or twitching, numbness on the sore side. Occasionally, tearing occurs from wind or cold air. Appearance of the patient's face from the outside is as if it belongs to two different people, one of whom is healthy, and the other is seriously ill. Blush on the cheek on the side of the violation does not occur even in severe frost. The glottis fissure expands due to the occlusion of the lower eyelid. If you press on the area of the eye or chin, then there may be pain.
Sensitivity in this form of atrophic changes persists for a long time, some patients experience pain along the facial nerve or numbness areas. The functions of muscle tissue do not change, but as a complication of this disease, sometimes paralysis of certain muscle groups is observed. The chin is deflected towards the atrophic lesion.
Sometimes the process can stop at some particular stage. Only after that it is possible to do plastic surgery.
How to determine atrophy and what to treat?
The disease is placed on the basis of complaints of the patient, finding out an anamnesis of the disease. Identify those factors that could serve as the cause of the disease. The thyroid gland, brain and spinal cord are examined. For differential diagnosis, the presence of congenital anatomical abnormalities should be excluded. In most cases, the atrophy of the facial muscles is accompanied by vegetative disorders.
It is not possible to stop this process at the moment. To support the patient, stimulant medications and multivitamins, massage are used. A set of exercises for the muscles of the face is recommended. Sometimes there is plastic. The indication for the operation is complete stabilization of the process. The tissue is taken from the thigh of the patient himself. The destruction of bone tissue can greatly complicate the autoplastic operation.