May 01, 2018
Rubella( rubeola) is an acute infectious anthroponotic disease transmitted by airborne droplets. The causative agent of rubella is attributed to the family Togaviridae, the genus Rubivirus. Virions contain RNA.Rubella is characterized by a winter-spring seasonality of morbidity. In 30-50% of infected rubella occurs in asymptomatic form.
The causative agent of the disease is the polynosa rubeolae virus.
Clinical picture of
Rash with rubella is one of the most typical signs of the disease. Appears rash on the 1-3-day from the onset of the disease in the beginning on the face and neck, spreading in a few hours throughout the body. The rash is small-spotted, pink-pink, without inclination to fusion. With moderate and severe forms of the disease in adults, the rash may be spotty-papular with petechial elements and a tendency to fusion. The rash is located on an unchanged skin background, mainly on the back, extensor surfaces of the limbs and is absent on the palms and back of the feet. Simultaneously with the rise in temperature to 38 ° C against general weakness, headache, nausea, joint and muscle pain, generalized lymphadenopathy is noted. The most frequent increase and soreness of the posteroderma and occipital lymph nodes, which have a testic consistency and retain mobility.
Differential diagnosis is most often performed with measles, scarlet fever, typhus, Bril's disease, meningococcemia, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, hemorrhagic fever with kidney syndrome, infectious mononucleosis.
There is no specific rubella therapy. If necessary, pathogenetic treatment is carried out.
Hospitalization is not required.
Hospitalized patients with severe illness in the infectious department.
15-50% of women have a potential risk of rubella infection during pregnancy. The greatest danger to the offspring is the presence in pregnant women of erased and latent forms of rubella, accompanied by persistence of the pathogen.
Infection of the fetus with a rubella virus depending on the period of pregnancy causes various malformations of its development. When a woman is infected in the first 2 months of pregnancy, the fetus develops heart defects( open arterial duct, pulmonary artery stenosis and its branches, atrial or interventricular septal defects, etc.), eye damage( cataract, glaucoma, retinopathy).Infection of a woman during the 3-4th month of pregnancy leads to the formation of CNS defects( microcephaly, paralysis of the limbs, impaired mental development) and damage to the hearing organ( deafness, defects of the organ of Corti).The earlier the infection of the pregnant woman occurs, the higher the probability of the fetus and the wider range of possible developmental anomalies. When a woman is ill in the first 6 weeks of pregnancy, the incidence of congenital anomalies in a newborn is 56%, with infection at the 13-16th week of pregnancy, 6-10%.After the 16th week of pregnancy, the virus usually does not affect the fetus.
An accurate diagnosis of rubella can be established only by isolating and identifying the virus, or on the basis of changes in the titers of specific AT.For serological diagnosis, ELISA is used.