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  • Organic Fertilizers

    Organic fertilizers have a beneficial effect on the composition of the soil, improve its characteristics, such as air and water permeability, have a stabilizing effect on the soil structure. Being decomposed in the ground, organic fertilizers develop the humus layer of the soil, significantly increasing its fertility and nutrients content. In addition, the introduction of organic fertilizers contributes to the regulation of biological processes in the soil and activates the activity of soil microorganisms. Currently, in connection with the ecologization of our consciousness, unconditional preference is given to natural organic fertilizers, which will be discussed in this section. Natural organic fertilizers can be of animal and vegetable origin. Depending on the origin, organic fertilizers affect the soil in various ways, the animals exert a greater influence on its chemical composition, and the vegetable ones on the physical properties of the soil. However, most organic fertilizers have a positive effect on the physical and chemical properties of the soil, besides, it is always possible to combine several types of organic fertilizers, combining their positive properties. Virtually all organic fertilizers are

    complete, because they contain nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, as well as many micronutrients, vitamins and hormones in a form that is accessible to plants. Among the organic fertilizers of animal origin the leading place is occupied by manure.

    This type of manure, having a base, is often called, as opposed to slurry, the stall manure.

    The composition of manure varies depending on the type of animals and the material used as litter in the place of their maintenance. This can be straw, peat, sawdust, wood shavings. Manure with straw litter is very high quality, has a good structure, and the straw that is reparted in its composition enriches manure with additional nutrients. Less often, peat is used as litter, which absorbs animal feces well and detains ammonia, preventing the nitric part of this organic fertilizer from disappearing. Sawdust and wood shavings are also often used for litter, but they are less effective. By types of animals, manure is divided into horse, goat, sheep, cattle, pig and rabbit( litter).

    Horse manure has a porous structure, is characterized by high airiness and during decomposition emits a lot of heat, much more than other kinds of manure. The essence of the heat transfer process is literally the following: manure in the heap is heated under the influence of rapidly developing microflora and decomposes with the release of heat and a large amount of nitrogen. Since the heat transfer of horse manure is extremely high, it is often used to heat greenhouses. Horse manure quickly decomposes and heats the soil, so it is recommended to use it on heavy, compacted, slowly warming soils that slow the decomposition and, as a result, get the necessary heat. On dense clay soils with the help of horse manure can arrange a warm patch. Horse manure is advised to bring in once in 2-3 years, sealing on a small or medium depth. The action of the of the sheep and of goat's manure is similar to that of horse manure. They are also considered "burning", that is, rapidly decomposing and emit a lot of heat, which under certain conditions can damage plants. Therefore, as well as horse manure, it is not recommended to use them on light soils.

    Bovine manure, and more often cow manure, called Mullein in the people, has a structure that is more dense than that of horse manure and is characterized by a much slower decomposition stage with less heat release. This determines its universality for any types of soil. Cow manure is extremely rich in basic nutrients, including nitrogen, which is contained in it in a form that is favorable for plants. The frequency of application of cow dung depends on the structure of the soil: on heavy, compacted and moist soils, it is recommended to make it every 3-4 years, as the decomposition process is slow, in medium soils - every 3 years, covering shallowly. In light soils where decomposition occurs quickly and nutrients also drift to the deeper layers of the soil, cow manure should be applied every two years and with sufficient depth of embedment.

    Pig manure is considered the least favorable of all types of manure. This is due, first of all, to its unsaturated watery structure and the slowed down process of decomposition. The content of valuable substances in pig manure is high enough, but the form in which they are found is not too favorable for plants. Unlike horse and cow manure, pig manure is "cold", that is, the heat transfer during its decomposition is insignificant. That is why it is not recommended to use it on heavy soils that further slow down the decomposition process. For sandy soils, pig manure is suitable, but preference should be given to other types of manure.

    The rabbit litter for nutrients and active substances exceeds the listed types of manure, but it is rarely used in its pure form. It is used for composting and as a liquid top dressing. Top dressing from rabbit litter is prepared and applied as follows. Dilute 1-2 kg of litter in a bucket of water and allow to stand for a while until it is completely dispersed. Dig in the ground shallow pits and in them to pour liquid top dressing at the rate of 1.5 l / m2.Pits after applying fertilizing fill the ground. There are a number of general rules and recommendations for the use of any type of manure. Categorically, fresh manure should not be applied to any crops, since fresh gases are released into the soil during the decomposition of fresh manure, and significant heat is generated in the root system, so that plants can simply "burn out".In addition, undeveloped organic matter in manure contains nutrients in a form inaccessible to plants and a large number of weed seeds of weeds. In this regard, you can use only manure, which has reached a certain stage of decomposition. According to the degree of decomposition, a fresh( unfit for use), semi-pre-blended, repelled manure and humus is distinguished.

    The semi-perishable manure has a dark brown color, and its weight decreases by 20-30 % during the primary decomposition. is a black homogeneous mass in which individual parts of the litter are no longer distinguishable. In the process of decomposition, nutrients acquire a form that is accessible to plants and can be assimilated by them. To get the material reparted, the manure is stored in a so-called cold way. On a leveled and compacted area, the manure is stacked in layers and packed well. To reduce the loss of nitrogen, which is released during the decomposition of manure, each layer is recommended to be poured with phosphate flour or peat. Above the pile cover a thick layer of peat 25-30 cm thick, a layer of dry leaves or straw, to minimize the loss of nitrogen and protect the manure from freezing. In this form, manure is kept for 4 to 8 months. In 10 g of semi-pereprevshego manure contains 50 g of nitrogen, 25 grams of phosphorus, 60 g of potassium. Before applying manure to the soil, it is desirable to enrich it with the addition of phosphoric mineral fertilizers. Asphyxiant is the result of a long decomposition of manure, as well as foliage, grass, straw and other plant residues. Very soft type of organic fertilizer. It is embedded in the soil, mixed into the soil for seedlings, poured into crops and used in a mixture with mulch materials. A valuable kind of organic fertilizer is the bird droppings. This complete organic fertilizer in terms of nutrient content exceeds all types of manure. It is characterized by a high rate of decomposition and rapidity of action. In the fresh form, bird droppings are not brought under the plants. It can be embedded in the soil for autumn digging at the rate of 200-300 g / m2, but more often bird droppings are used to prepare composts or are kept in the same way as manure, leading to a semi-pererebrate state. Bird droppings serve as the basis for preparing liquid top dressing or sourdough. A 1/3 barrel should be filled with a bird's litter and poured into the top with water, mix thoroughly and leave for 3-5 days, stirring occasionally. Do not insist top dressing too long due to large nitrogen losses. After the lapse of the infusion, the liquid top dressing is diluted in proportion of 1 part of the fertilizing to 3-4 parts of water and added to the wells under the culture at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 m2.Another way to use bird droppings is the dry method. Bird droppings are ground to a powdery state and dispersed under crops at a rate of 30-50 g / m2.Bird droppings can also be mixed with peat and in this form used as the main fertilizer.

    Liquid manure, , also called , is an excellent fertilizer for nondestructive manure or , is appreciated for its speed and because it can be used almost continuously, spreading as necessary in the water and introducing it as root feeding. Particularly responsive to this kind of feeding are strong and medium nutritional consumers: white and red cabbage, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts, chinese cabbage, broccoli, celery, onions, chard, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, zucchini, zucchini, pumpkin, eggplant, spinach, carrots, red beets, cabbage salad and some other crops. When using slurry for feeding, it should be diluted with water in a ratio of 1 part of the liquid to 3 or 5 parts of water, this amount can add 25-30 grams of superphosphate to enrich the liquid fertilizer and apply fertilizing at a rate of 1.5-2 liters / m2.

    Liquid manure top dressing can be prepared as follows. Hard litter dung in a barrel, filling it with 1/4, pour to the top with water, preferably rain, and allow to stand for 1-2 days, regularly mixing. To reduce the unpleasant odor, you can add pulverized silica. A real liquid fertilizer to water the plants.

    Bone meal is a product of the processing of animal bones obtained by slaughtering cattle. Appreciated for the high content of calcium and especially phosphorus. Bone meal is used as the main fertilizer at the rate of 3-4 kg / m2.In its natural form decomposes slowly, to accelerate the action of bone meal should be finely ground or dissolved in water. It can also be added to the composts so that it is in their composition passed the primary stage of decomposition. The exception is light soils that accelerate the process of decomposition, so bone meal can be used in their natural form.

    Peat is divided into riding, lowland and transitional. The peat turf is a sparse product and therefore is not suitable for direct application as a fertilizer. But it can be successfully composted, pretreated with ground calcium carbonate, and then used as a finished fertilizer on various types of locks in order to improve their physical properties and enrich with humus. Such a passed primary treatment of the upstream and transitional peat can also be added to the compost or used for mulching the soil. When composting, lime, phosphorite flour, mineral fertilizers, as well as manure, bird droppings or other biologically active components are added to the peat. Ash moss is suitable for fertilizing and composting without pretreatment, since it is a recycled product. Soil, fertilized with peat, is especially good for growing vegetables, as it has all the necessary conditions for the development of their tender root system.

    Comparative characteristics of upland and low peat,%:

    N

    P2O5

    k2o

    CaO

    MgO pH.

    Rigid

    peat 1

    0,06

    8,08

    0,3

    0,13 3

    Lowland

    peat 2,8

    0,1

    0,12

    2,5

    0,3 5

    Silty deposits, also called sediment, sediment of fresh water is a particularly valuable nitrogen fertilizer that accumulates on the bottom of fresh water bodies: rivers, ponds, lakes. This type of fertilizer contains 10-30 % organic matter, 0.3-2 % nitrogen, 0.2-0.5 % phosphorus, 0.3-0.5 % potassium. The upper layers of the silt are characterized by a higher content of nutrients than the lower ones. Il is used as a fertilizer, directly introducing into the soil, or after composting with other organic materials. In its pure form, the silt is used after drying and airing. These preliminary procedures are necessary to reduce the humidity of the sludge and complete oxidation of zakisnyh compounds in it, the effect of which can have a depressing effect on plant growth. Silt fresh water is good to make on light soils at the rate of 3-4 kg / m2.

    Wood Ash is characterized by a high content of nutrients, for example phosphorus, potassium, calcium( up to 40%), magnesium and various sulfur compounds. The highest nutrient content is observed in the form of potash, readily soluble and high-speed. Especially the effect of ash on acidic soils, where it is recommended to make an autumn digging at a rate of 500-700 g / m2.Ash is best spread on the surface of the soil, so that the potassium carbonate in the ash does not harm the young tender roots of plants. Completing in the soil to improve its structure, materials such as straw and crushed wood bark, should simultaneously introduce nitrogen, which is consumed during their decomposition.

    The so-called green organic fertilizer is gaining popularity with the years due to its exceptional environmental friendliness, and also because the plants themselves used as fertilizers are part of the living plant complex that passes its life cycle of development, and therefore the mostare close to the nature of fertilized crops. There are two main ways to use plants as a fertilizer: herbal infusions and growing green mass of plants with a subsequent priming it into the ground.

    Herbal infusions is a very valuable type of fertilizer, it is introduced under the roots of plants, and is also used as a pest control by spraying the aboveground part of plants.

    The main value of liquid fertilizers in the form of herbal infusions is a soft strengthening effect on plants, increasing their resistance to diseases and resistance to adverse natural phenomena. Therefore, fertilizing plants with herbal infusions is largely preventive in nature and gives positive results without the use of strong chemical fertilizers.

    Prepare herbal infusion is not difficult. For this, plants such as nettle, collected before flowering, comfrey, dandelion, chamomile, wormwood are laid in a barrel or other capacious container. Most often, especially in summer, use fresh plants, but you can also use dried herbs. Fresh or dried plants to grind, fold in a barrel and pour to the top with water. It is better to use stagnant rainwater, which contains less salts and impurities, this will increase the value of liquid fertilizer. The proportion is chosen arbitrarily, but the approximate ratio of parts of water and plants should be as follows: 1 kg of fresh herbs or 200 g dried in 10 liters of water. The infusion should be well fermented, then the herbs will give all the valuable substances contained in them, and in the process of decomposition, nitrogen will be released. In fairly warm weather, fermentation begins in 3-5 days and with varying degrees of intensity lasts for 3 weeks. During the fermentation, the herbal infusion should be regularly mixed intensively, thereby ensuring access to oxygen and a normal degree of decomposition. If the infusion does not mix, the access of oxygen will be difficult and stagnant rotting processes will begin, which will lead to the release of toxic substances and the loss of valuable properties of liquid fertilizer. During fermentation, a not-so-pleasant scent of grass can be released to neutralize it, it is possible to add pulverized silica in the herbal infusion. After two, maximum three weeks, the fermentation process stops, the infusion ceases to foam, the liquid from the cloudy becomes transparent and dark. At this point, the liquid herbal fertilizer can be considered ready. The infusion is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 10 or slightly stronger for grown adult plants and watered the plants under the root. When working with liquid fertilizer, protect your hands with rubber gloves. Preparation of herbal infusion

    . In a barrel of layers lay crushed fresh plants( one kind or mixture): comfrey, nettle, dandelion, chamomile, wormwood. Grasses should not be rammed: we must leave space between them for air. Pour the barrel to the brim with water.

    2. The unpleasant odor accompanying fermentation can be reduced by adding a handful of pulverized silica. The barrel is left open, so that oxygen can freely flow into it, thereby improving the fermentation process. With the same purpose, the herbal infusion should be regularly mixed thoroughly.

    3. After 10-14 days or a little later, depending on the temperature of the air, the infusion is ready. The liquid ceases to show signs of fermentation, the suspension remaining from it, settles on the bottom, the infusion becomes transparent. Before direct use of herbal infusion, strain through a fine screen and dilute with water in a 1: 10 ratio.

    Herbal infusions, prepared on rainwater, have a beneficial effect on plants. The collected grass is placed in a barrel to collect rainwater, which, when it is filled with water to the brim, is closed. Infusion should be thoroughly mixed at regular intervals.

    Comfrey

    - powerful herbaceous plant rich in hardwood weight height to 15 m, differs high content nutrients and active substances and is a valuable plant for the preparation herbal infusions. Nettle canister contains a number of particularly valuable active substances that stimulate plant growth, increase their resistance to diseases, promote the formation of chlorophyll and have bactericidal properties.

    Herbal tea

    A variant of herbal infusion can be considered herbal tea, which serves to enhance the vitality of plants. For the preparation of herbal tea, fresh plants( comfrey, chamomile, dandelion, nettle, wormwood, etc.) should be boiled and let them lie down in water until it cools completely. Such tea can be used to water plants under the root and spray foliage.

    Sideration as a method of soil fertilization

    An important way of using plants as a fertilizer is to grow a green mass of plants with a subsequent priming it into the ground. Plants used as of green fertilizer, are called by sideral cultures of or siderites, and the process of plowing green plant mass - by sideration. Sederation improves the structure of the soil and its physical properties, enriches the soil with organic matter, nitrogen, nutrients, increases the content of humus in it. Sideria as an agrotechnical method of soil cultivation has been known since ancient times. Even the ancient Romans, famous for their progressive views on farming practices, sowed legumes and lupins to improve the quality of the soil. The favorable effect of sideration on the soil is carried out in two directions at successive stages of this process. In the step of cultivating the sideral crops, fast-growing plants permeate the lower soil layers with their deep strong roots, promoting mixing of soil particles and protecting the nutrients in the soil composition from washing out. As a result, up to 30 % plant-created organic matter enters the deeper soil layers, enriching and loosening them.

    Advantages of siding

    Protection of the soil from erosion due to the branched root system of plants.

    Prevention of leaching of nutrients.

    Stimulation of activity of soil microorganisms.

    Deep loosening of the soil due to a significant mass of the root system.

    On heavy soils, an alternative to laborious tillage.

    Improvement of air and water permeability of soil, as well as its general biological state.

    Favorable changes in soil structure, creation of cloddy structure.

    Increased nutrient content in the soil.

    Improvement: dynamics of nutrient turnover in the soil.

    Soil enrichment with nitrogen.

    Significant increase in humus content in the soil.

    Multiple increase in the yield of subsequent crops after sideration.

    Most sideral cultures have a pronounced core structure of the root system with a high ability to penetrate the compacted soil layers. The ripening capacity of sideral plants is very high, and in areas with a not too dense sub-plow layer, the cultivation of sideral crops can to some extent replace the mechanical measures of deep loosening of the soil and help to avoid the formation of large and dense clumps of soil appearing during plowing or digging. In addition to this cultivation of sideral crops biological improvement of the soil is achieved, namely, activation of the life of soil microorganisms, improvement of water permeability and ventilation of the soil due to the formation of voids and labyrinths from the roots of plants in the earth's soil, increased supply of soil with oxygen, prevention of soil erosion and leaching of nutrients fromits composition, the creation of a stable, loose, lumpy structure of the upper soil layer. A stable cloddy structure of the soil is achieved due to the adhesion of individual solid soil particles as a result of interaction with soil bacteria that excrete mucus, fungi, root hairs.