Why the hypernephroma of the kidney is formed, how to timely identify and treat this pathology
Hypernphroma of the kidney is a malignant tumor that consists of the epithelium of the renal cortical layer. This pathology occurs in 75 - 85% of kidney neoplasms in people aged 40 to 60 years, mainly in males. In children, this pathology is very rare.
is formed The causes of the appearance of hypernephroma remain unclarified, but experts identify specific etiological factors that increase the risk of developing kidney cancer. Twice as often, hyper nephroma develops in smokers, especially the male. Smoking is the main risk factor for the appearance of a tumor in the kidney, and quitting smoking reduces the risk of hypernephroma by 15% in 25 years.
Chemicals also adversely affect the epithelium of the kidneys, especially asbestos, gasoline, organic solvents, cadmium and certain medications.
As signs indicate the development of the pathology of
Since the formation of hypernephroma before the manifestation of the first symptoms may take a year or more. Clinical manifestations of pathology are characterized by a traditional renal triad - pain, blood in the urine and palpable tumor, as well as extrarenal symptoms.
Two-thirds of all patients with hyper-nephroma themselves see the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria manifests itself unexpectedly and is not accompanied by pain, can become transient, insignificant, or, on the contrary, be total. Intensive hematuria often provokes a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood.
The formation of blood clots provokes occlusion in the ureters and acute renal colic. Characteristic also for gipernefromy - it's pain that I follow immediately after hematuria. The pain is aching and becomes permanent.
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Only in half the cases of the disease, the affected kidney can be felt through the front side of the abdominal wall or through the waist region. In the male, the pressure on the renal, inferior and testicular veins provokes varicocele.
Common symptoms of hypernephroma include unreasonable fever, accompanied by chills, weakness, myalgia, lack of appetite, nausea with vomiting and severe weight loss.
When a tumor is detected in the kidney, surgical intervention, X-ray exposure or chemotherapy is usually given.
In the normal operation of the paired kidney and the possibility of an operation, a radical nephrectomy is organized, which consists in removing the organ together with the adrenal gland, the nearby cellulose and lymph nodes. At the first stage of tumor growth, that is, with hypernephros with a diameter of up to 7 cm, with poor performance or the absence of a second kidney, partial nephrectomy can be performed.
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If it is not possible to organize a radical operation, in some cases, arterial embolization is used, which involves blocking the blood vessels in the kidney that feeds the malignant growth.
Chemotherapy or X-ray irradiation can be performed in isolation or when combined with surgical methods. The following methods of treatment are of great importance: cryotherapy, ultrasound, etc.
Prediction and prophylaxis of the disease
In general, the prognosis for the development of hypernephroma coincides with the prognosis for the development of renal cell carcinoma.
To prevent the formation of a tumor, it is necessary to prevent harmful carcinogenic effects on the human body, such as smoking, exposure to chemicals and certain medicines. Also for the purpose of prevention requires timely treatment of any renal pathologies.
A pledge of early diagnosis of hypernephroma is the regular organization of ultrasound examination for all people. When blood is detected in the urine, pain in the lumbar region requires the organization of dative diagnostics from the appropriate specialist.Like the article? Share with friends and acquaintances: