• History of anesthesia

    It is known that since ancient times man has sought to find a means to reduce pain during surgical interventions, for this various means( ice, mechanical compression of nerve trunks), infusions of different plants( mandrake root, belladonna, dope), alcohol were used. However, all these methods did not give a great result and often led to serious complications.

    October 16, 1846 W. Morton first demonstrated the removal of the tumor of the submaxillary region with the use of anesthesia with ether. This event is the official date of birth of modern anesthesiology. Morton also worked on the development of the predecessor of the modern anesthesia apparatus - the evaporator of the ether. After a while the ether for anesthesia of operations began to be used all over the world. In February 1847, he was first used in Moscow. Earlier Morton in 1844 G. Wells observed the anesthetic effect of nitrous oxide in the treatment of teeth, but the method was unsuccessful, so it was for a long time forgotten, although at the present time nitrous oxide is widely used in the composition of combined anesthesia. But the pioneers of anesthesia were not only H. Wells, W. Morton, but our compatriot Ya. A.Chistovich, who in 1844 provided data on the use of sulfur ether for amputation of the hip. English doctor D.Yu. Simpson discovered the anesthetic effect of chloroform, which he used to perform labor. However, because of its high toxicity, this anesthetic is not currently used.

    Scientific research and development of N.I. is of great importance for the development of anesthesiology. Pirogov, who studied the methods of anesthesia, created an anesthesia machine for ethereal anesthesia. He was the first to identify the negative side of anesthesia, complications, anesthesia clinic. Pirogov introduced etheric and chloroform anesthesia into military field surgery and with the use of anesthesia made during the Sevastopol campaign not one thousand operations without a single lethal outcome from anesthesia. He was the first in Russia to apply anesthesia during childbirth, developed methods for rectal, intravascular, intracerebral ether.

    In 1909, S.P.Fedorov and N.P.Kravkov discovered intravenous hedonol anesthesia, which was subsequently used to initiate the development of non-induction and combined anesthesia.

    In the 1930s.together with the development of drugs for inhalation anesthesia, drugs for non-anional anesthesia were developed. At this time, derivatives of barbituric acid, hexenal, sodium thiopental, were proposed for intravenous anesthesia, which are successfully used at present.

    In parallel with the study and implementation of general anesthesia techniques, local anesthesia was developed. In this field, the following researchers had great significance for science: V.K.Anrep, M. Oberet, G. Brown, A. I. Lukashevich, A. Beer. In 1905, Novocaine A. Einhorn was synthesized, which subsequently led to widespread use of local anesthesia.

    In the 1940s. A new type of anesthesia was developed and introduced into practice - endotracheal. The use of artificial lung ventilation, the development of anesthesia apparatus, artificial respiration apparatus, which allowed to improve the methods of thoracic surgery, operations on the abdominal cavity, central nervous system.

    Further development of methods of multicomponent anesthesia was carried out, in which, using a combination of narcotic substances and other medications, it is possible to affect different centers of the nervous system. In the 1950s. Labari and Gyuginar developed a method of hibernation and neuroplagy. At present, deep hibernation is not used, since the aminazine, which is part of the narcotic mixture, suppresses the compensatory possibilities of the organism. However, one type of neuroplegia - neuroleptanalgesia - has become widespread. For it, intravenous administration of fentanyl, droperidol and endotracheal nitrous oxide are used. Due to neuroleptanalgesia, operations are performed with good analgesia, but without deep inhibition of the central nervous system.

    In the post-war period, surgeons I.S.Zhorov, A.N.Bakulev, A.A.Vishnevsky, E.N.Meshalkin, B.V.Petrovsky, AM Amosov, and others.