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  • Change in speech - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.

    The human speech apparatus consists of several levels. Initially, speech is formed in the speech center in the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere of the brain. Then the brain centers responsible for arbitrary movements enter the case. After this, excitation is transferred from the central nervous system along the nerve fibers to the muscles of the larynx, pharynx, palatal curtain, tongue, lips, cheeks. And with the help of the movements of these muscles and the flow of air in the upper respiratory tract, speech is performed. As a result of various diseases, at each described stage of speech formation, a "breakdown" can occur. Speech disorders manifest themselves in different ways depending on the level of damage.

    Level of lesion

    Type of speech impairment

    Description

    Diseases

    Central nervous system

    in children

    Alalia

    Speech in the child was not formed as a function of

    Underdevelopment of the cerebral cortex, epilepsy

    Central nervous system

    in adults( cerebral cortex)

    Aphasia

    The understanding of the lexical and grammatical constructions of the language is broken - the person in consciousness either does not understand the speech addressed to him, or he himself can not correctly construct a phrase or pick up the right oneword

    Stroke, tumors, traumatic brain injury, dementia, degenerative diseases, infections, poisoning, metabolic disorders

    Central and peripheral nervous system, nerve fibers, neuromuscular transmission, muscles

    Dysarthria

    Articulation violation - tongue and lips "do not obey, Porridge in the mouth

    Stroke, multiple sclerosis, syringobulbia, tumors, traumatic brain injury, infections, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, amyotrophy, Chiari anomaly, vascular aneurysm, Guillain-Barre syndrome, dystonia,myasthenia gravis, polymyositis, muscular dystrophy

    Central and peripheral nervous system, nerve fibers, neuromuscular transmission, muscles

    Dysphonia

    Muffled, hoarse voice, nasal

    Stroke, multiple sclerosis, syringogulbia, tumors, head injury, infections, amyotrophic lateralsclerosis, amyotrophy, Chiari anomaly, vascular aneurysm, Guillain-Barre syndrome, thyroid surgery, heart and aortic diseases, volumetric formations beyond the breastbone, myasthenia gravis, polymyositis, muscular dystrophy

    Central Nervous System

    Mutism

    Complete absence of speech

    Defeat of certain brain structures, epilepsy, mental illness( schizophrenia, hysteria, depression)