Apr 17, 2018
Description and varieties. The history of the penetration of this plant into our gardens is very long and confusing, after centuries the monarch is grown as an ethereal and ornamental plant. The decorativeness of the monarch is not recognized by all the florists, and the reason for this, apparently, is in the discreet and at the same time very unusual in its wild beauty inflorescences. By the beginning of the XIX century, the monastery was grown under the names: bergamot - for resemblance to the aroma of citrus plants - bergamot, Oswego tea - so it was used by Indians of the Osgobo tribe, bee or fragrant balsam, Indian nettle, American melissa, Indian feather and mountain balsam. Monarda is a herbaceous plant from the family of labial flowers. Her native land is North America and Mexico, from where the plant was brought to Spain after Columbus discovered a new continent. In 3 centuries the plant was included by Karl Linnaeus in its classification of species( "Plant Species", 1753), and the genus was named after N. Monardes - "monarch".The genus includes up to 20 species. Most of them are perennials, the aerial part of which perishes in winter and resumes in the spring. The stalk of the monarch is straight, branched, with a height of 1 - 1.4 m;leaves dentate oblong-lanceolate;small flowers collected in 2-3 head inflorescences diameter
6-7 cm, located one above the other on the stem. Blossom monarch from July to the end of summer. In ornamental floriculture, the most common are three kinds of monads: double, tubular, or arched, and lemon. Monarch double - is the tallest and most widespread species. In the culture there are garden forms and varieties with a compact bush, a bright coloring of the inflorescences - red, violet, pink, white and lilac. Unicorn monad, or tubular, differs from the monarch with a double somewhat smaller bush height. Valued as an essential oil plant with a high content of thymol, it is used in medicine and perfumery. This kind of monard has become widespread in floriculture, especially its dwarf variety - a plant 10-35 cm high with dark green leaves and light lavender flowers.
Monad lemon is especially interesting for growing on personal plots, as it can be used not only as decorative, but also as a spicy vegetable plant. In the leaves, stems and flowers of lemon monarch contains essential oil, which has in its composition the same components as basil, mint, lemon balm and other spicy plants.
The most famous varieties of American breeding:
Adam - has large alo-red inflorescences, compact shrub, grows well in the penumbra, but better in the sun.
Mahogens. Its flowers, collected in the inflorescence, are twisted at the ends, which gives the plant an original appearance. Petals are dark red. And leaves, and flowers with a strong smell. The variety is characterized by long flowering( to frost), effective in summer bouquets.
Croftway Punk - is one of the most attractive varieties with lilac-pink coloring of flowers. Abundantly blooms in the shade. Many find it irresistible and suitable for cutting.
Snow Byte - variety with pure white flowers. Effective in both single-tree plantings, and in combination with a variety of plants. The bush is tall, compact.
Other varieties are known: Cambridge Scarlett - with bright red, Prairie Glow, Sunset - purple, Snow Maiden - white, Mrs. Perry - pink-red, Rose Queen - with pink flowers.
As a spicy vegetable culture, monarch lemon is included in the catalogs of many countries.
In the US, for example, it is widely used as an additive to tea, seasoning to meat dishes and salads to arouse appetite and improve digestion. The folk plant of the Indians of America is beautiful, healthy and tasty. Monarda is planted mainly in the form of single plantations, inside of which it is possible to create a flower composition according to the color of the plants. It is also used in mixed plantings in flowerbeds and rabatki.
Cultivation. Monarch is unpretentious to soils, it does not tolerate only strongly acidic and very moist. Well responds to the application of organic fertilizers. The plant loves the sun, but it also tolerates penumbra. The underground part of the monarch is rather winter hardy. Shrubs 4-5 years of age have up to 100-150 flowering shoots, than create a decorative effect. However, more than 6 years in one place to keep the monarch should not, as the fall of the central part of the bush begins and the productivity of the plant decreases. Propagated by seeds by sowing in open ground in May, by dividing bushes( best in spring) and by stretches of roots with buds of renewal in the same way as mint. Seeds are planted on the 15-20th day.