Blood in sputum: a cough with blood, saliva with blood - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.

  • Blood in sputum: a cough with blood, saliva with blood - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.

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    Cough with blood( hemoptysis) - all cases of discharge of blood when coughing, whether it's blood streaks in the sputum or massive bleeding from the respiratory tract. It is obvious that with a strong cough with blood, the patient should be fully examined so that a specific cause of this phenomenon can be established. Since one can not be completely sure that the presence of blood streaks in sputum is a result of an exceptionally benign condition, a patient with this variant of blood cough should also be fully examined. A big mistake is the binding of a periodically arising cough to the blood with only one previously established diagnosis, for example, with chronic bronchiectasis or bronchitis. Such an approach can lead to the fact that a serious, but potentially curable disease may remain unrecognized. The safest approach to the recurring episodes of coughing with the blood is to treat each such case always as the first( not related to the previous ones) followed by a full examination of the patient.

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    Saliva with blood may appear from various forms of infections in the lungs, such as acute bronchitis or pneumonia. Saliva with blood can also be the cause of lung cancer.

    Causes of Coughing with blood:

    Causes of coughing with blood

    Before starting any diagnostic procedures to find out the cause of a blood cough, it is extremely important to make sure that the blood does come from the respiratory tract and not from the nasopharynx or gastrointestinalintestinal tract. To distinguish between a cough and blood from vomiting with an admixture of blood is sometimes quite difficult. Coughing with blood is usually preceded by the appearance of a feeling of tingling in the throat or cough, blood is excreted with a cough, as a rule, it is bright red and frothy. The harbingers of vomiting with blood are nausea and a feeling of discomfort in the abdominal cavity;blood comes with vomit, in color it resembles red aniline paint. Once the source of blood supply has been established, it is possible to proceed to perform diagnostic studies to determine the cause of hemoptysis. In the literature, you can find a large number of reports of individual diseases, accompanied by a cough with blood.

    The pathological conditions most frequently causing coughing with blood include:

    1) inflammatory diseases( bronchitis, bronchiectatic disease, tuberculosis, lung abscess, pneumonia, especially caused by Klebsiella);
    2) neoplasms( lung cancer, including scaly-cell, adenocarcinoma, oat-cell), bronchial adenoma;
    3) Other [pulmonary embolism, left ventricular failure, mitral valve stenosis, trauma including foreign bodies and lung contusion, primary pulmonary hypertension( arterial and venous anomalies, Eisenmenger syndrome, pulmonary vasculitis, including Wegener's granulomatosis and Goodpasture's syndrome, idiopathichemosiderosis of the lung, amyloidosis), hemorrhagic diathesis, including treatment with anticoagulants].

    The frequency of registration of the reasons listed above depends on the institution in which the patients are located and on what grounds the bleeding is judged: large amounts of blood or sputum streaks. If you consider both signs, the most common cause of coughing with blood is bronchitis and bronchiectasis( approximately 60-70% of cases).In surgical hospitals, there are more extensive lung lesions and diseases requiring surgical intervention: carcinoma( 20%), localized, segmental or lobar bronchiectasis( 30%).In TB hospitals, the most common cause of hemoptysis is, naturally, tuberculosis( 2-40% of cases).In the reports of a cough with blood, which includes both therapeutic and surgical patients, the range is very wide: carcinoma( 20%), bronchiectasis( 30%), bronchitis( 15%), other inflammatory diseases, including tuberculosis( 10-20%), other diseases, including vascular, traumatic and hemorrhagic( 10%).However, even with the most thorough examination in 5-15% of cases of massive hemoptysis, its exact cause can not be established.

    When discussing diseases accompanied by a cough with blood, two points should be emphasized:

    1) a cough with blood is rare in metastatic lung carcinoma;
    2) although viral or pneumococcal pneumonia may sometimes cause meager hemoptysis, in each such case it is necessary to think about the possibility of having a more serious concomitant disease.

    If you feel generally good and cough expectoration with a small amount of blood is a random phenomenon - do not worry;but if it repeats or you have additional symptoms, this may indicate one of the following serious illnesses and you should immediately seek medical help.

    To which doctors to consult if there is a Cough with blood:

    - Tuberculosis doctor
    - Oncologist
    - Pulmonologist
    - Therapeutist

    In what diseases does Saliva with blood arise:

    - Hypothyroidism( Hypothyroidism)
    - Dehydration of the body
    - Esophagus rings
    - Cancerhead and neck
    - Lung cancer
    - Acute bronchitis
    - Pneumonia
    - Tuberculosis

    To which doctors to consult if there is a saliva with blood:

    - Oncologist
    - Resuscitator
    - Endocrinologist
    - Phthisiatrist