Apr 16, 2018
Description and varieties. Narcissus is a very ancient flower, which is associated with many legends, beliefs and customs in the cultures of different peoples. In Europe, the narcissus came from Asia Minor and was particularly fond of England. It is an unusually tender fragrant spring flower, especially appreciated by the flower growers for its tenderness and fragile beauty.
It is believed that the scientific name of this plant Narcissus Poeticus is based on the nature of the flowers of narcissus to produce an intoxicating intense odor that can cause a headache, because narke in translation means "stupefyingly smelling".
Genus Narcissus includes 40 species belonging to the family Amaryllis. These species grow on the wooded and stony slopes of the mountains of Southern Europe, the Mediterranean and the Caucasus. The culture uses 25 species and a variety of hybrid forms, combined in a species called narcissus hybrid. Daffodils have large white, yellow or two-color fragrant straight or drooping flowers, located one by one or several in the form of an umbrella brush on pedicles 25-35 cm in length. The brush can have from 2 to 8 flowers. Peduncles are leafless, round
or flattened from two sides. Flowers of a kind form, perianth radially symmetrical, saucer-shaped, consists of 6 free lobes, sometimes bent backwards, and a prince formed by fused outgrowths of lobes. A pier is called a tube or crown, depending on its height. The tube is funnel-shaped or elongated-funnel-shaped. Flower stalk is hollow, dihedral, bluish-green in color, covered with whitish bloom;to the apex, a more delicate continuation of a light green color, with a webbed vaginal bract from which a single drooping flower emerges, emerges from it, as if from a case, the leaves of the narcissus are radical, linear, thin, grow somewhat earlier than the peduncle and after flowering continuea few weeks, drying up in the middle of summer. Flowering daffodils in April-May. Daffodils have a long-term storing organ - a bulb, covered with a thin brown skin, formed from external feeding scales, pushed to the periphery. Bulbs of different varieties of daffodils have different shapes: round, ovate or elongated, pointed upward. Bulbs are distinguished by analysis( I, II, III and baby), large bulbs are one-, two- or multi-vertex. A few bulbs on the same bottom, wrapped in top-dyed dry scales, are called a nest. The embedding, development of the kidneys and the growth of the scales go on continuously, but the daughter bulbs do not separate immediately, the old scales tightly clasp the bulb.
Bulbs have a round bottom and a crown of roots. New roots grow every year after a period of rest and death of the old. The life span of the roots is 10-11 months. The roots of the daffodils do not branch and reach a depth of 40 cm. Between the scales of the bulb, buds of future bulbs are laid, but not all of these buds develop. More often develop 2 3 kidneys, resulting in a 2-3-vertex bulb with 2-3 peduncles. The daughter bulbs are separated from the maternal bulb depending on the location in 2-3 years. Today, over 27,000 varieties of daffodils are known, and novelties of breeding in large quantities continue to appear annually. In such an extraordinary variety of varieties of narcissus can not be understood without classification. The existing classification of daffodils is based on the differences in the flower structure. There are 11 main groups. 1. Tubular - single flowers, the prince forms a tube that is equal in length or greater than the length of the perianth.
Tubular form of the flower
The color is pure white, yellow, in two-colored perianth white, the tube is yellow. Height of plants from 15 to 45 cm.
2. Coarse-grained - flowers are single, the head is a pipe or bowl, its height is more than 1/3 of the length of the perianth. In addition to pure white and pure yellow, there are very popular varieties with an orange crown, relating to two-color varieties. Height of plant up to 60 cm.
3 - Small crown - single flowers, the head is shaped like a bowl, much shorter than the perianth, does not exceed 1/3 and is therefore called a crown. Flowers are often two-colored, perianth white or yellow, crown orange, sometimes with a red border. Plant height 35-45 cm 4. Terry - varieties with more than 6 segments of perianth. Flowers of white, yellow color,
Coarse-grained flower shape
Fine-crowned form of the
flower as well as bicolour, for example, the outer lobes are white or yellow, internal - orange-red. The daffodils of this group are obliged by their terry structure to the fact that one or several flowers with perianth leaves located in more than 2 circles are located on the peduncle.
5. Triadrusic - , the varieties of this group derive their name from the name of the narcissus, which became the starting point for the breeding of these varieties - Narcissus triandrus ( H. three-spike).Several flowers of the drooping form are collected in the inflorescence on the top of the peduncle. The height of the plant is up to 40-45 cm.
6. Cyclamenoid - varieties of this group, also called cyclamen, as the name implies, originate from Narcissus cyclamineus ( H. cyclamen).Flowers are single, drooping forms, the petals are bent back, due to
Terry flower shape
The incision-shaped flower form
which gives the flower a striking similarity to the cyclamen flower. Crown of tubular form, graceful. The height of the plant is small and usually does not exceed 15-20 cm.
7. Jonkid-shaped - for the varieties of this group, the source material was Narcissus jonquilla ( H. Jonquil).Jonkyloid varieties are valued for an unusually subtle, fragile appearance. The leaves are very narrow, flexible, the flowers are not large with broad petals and a very short crown are collected in an umbrella brush on the tip of a thin peduncle. They have a pleasant aroma. The height of the plant is 20-30 cm.
Trianus, cyclamenoid and jonquil varieties of daffodils due to poor winter hardiness in the middle belt are not widely distributed.
TACULTY FORM OF THE FLOWER
POETIC FORM OF THE FLOWER
8. TACULATE - small fragrant flowers with rounded petals are collected on 4-8 in a dense brush on a high peduncle. The color is white and yellow, the cup or crown of the flower is often orange. The height of the plant is up to 45 cm. The varieties of this group do not have high endurance and resistance to weather changes. Prefer a mild climate.
9. Poetic - flowers single, fragrant, rather large, perianth white, small flat corrugated crown yellow-orange, orange, red or with a border. Plant height 35-45 cm.
10. Species - this group includes wild species of daffodils, but not cultural forms. The appearance of the flowers is different, among them there are single flowers and collected in a brush, tubular and with a short lush crown. Common to all wild species are very early flowering periods. The average height of plants does not exceed 30 cm.
11. Other. This group includes new hybrid forms of garden daffodils, not included in the previous groups. A group of varieties with a large cut corrugated crown, painted in white, yellow, orange or red, is of interest. The crown is unusual in that it is split by deep cuts, ranging from 1/3 to 1/2 of its length, into free lobes. The crown shares are strongly bent, which gives the flower a very original look. Sometimes these varieties are called orchid for their similarity to the orchid flower.
Daffodils are quite different in flowering time. The earliest ones are tattoosid. Later varieties - terry and poetic - blossom in May.
White - April Love, Mount Hood, Empres of Aylend, Birzeba.
Yellow - Ansepasabel, Golden Harvest, Dutch Master, Rembrandt, Expression, Lemon, Irley Glory, Spelbinder.
Two-color - Bravura ( flower white, yellow tube), Magnet ( white / yellow), Topolino ( white / yellow).
Coarse daffodils White - Si Archin ( white flower, crown white), Desdemona ( white / white), Easter Moon ( white / white).
White two-tone - White - Ice Follis ( white, light yellow crown), Jules Bern ( white / yellow) Amor ( white / yellow with orange border), Dick Wilband ( white / orange), ( white / bright yellow), Focheng ( white / orange), Shalom ( white / salmon), Elton Ledget ( white / bright yellow), Barret Browning ( white /orange), Paola Verones ( white / yellow-orange), Mrs. Beckhouse ( white / pinki), Pink Pride ( white / pink), Pink Charm ( white / pink), Chiffon ( white / pink), Rosie Sa-nudez ( white / pink).
Yellow - Yellow Sun ( flower yellow, crown yellow), Irley Glory ( yellow / yellow), Carlton ( yellow / yellow).
Yellow two-tone - Scarlet Ohara ( flower yellow, crown orange), Tinker ( yellow / orange), Cabinet ( yellow / bright orange), Red Marley ( yellow / red-orange), San Cheriott ( bright yellow / bright orange), Unicum ( light yellow / bright orange). Cream two-tone - Kilwors ( cream-white flower, orange crown), Muscadet ( creamy white / lemon), Royal Orange ( cream yellow / bright orange), Semper Avanti / orange).
Fine-crowned daffodils White ( white flower and crown) - Angel, Chiniseis White, Frizhit.
White two-tone - Odibon ( white flower, crown with cream border with pink border), Barret Bra-unid ( white / dark yellow), Rocol ( white / bright orange), Efleim ( white / red)- orange). Yellow two-tone - Burma, Edward Baks-tone and Verger ( all three have a yellow flower, a crown of orange), Apricot Distinction ( soft apricot, yellowish / orange).
White - Ice King, White Marvel ( inflorescence), Chir-fulness ( inflorescence).
White two-tone - Acropolis ( white, internal orange petals), White Lion ( white / creamy yellow), Irene Cowland ( white / creamy apricot), Gay Challenger ( white / orange-red), Pink Transfers ( white / orange-pink), Riplet ( white / dark pink), Sir Winston Churchill ( white / orange, inflorescence).
Yellow - Wallow Cheerfulness, Texas, Golden Ducat, Telamonius Plenus.
Yellow two-color - Apotheosis of ( the outer petals are yellow, internal orange).
White -Dabble White Poetics with ( white flower, crown white).
White two-tone - Actaea ( white flower, orange crown), Cantabile ( white / greenish), Pezents Ai ( white / dark orange).
Cut-to-crowned daffodils White bicolour - Broadway Star ( white flower, yellow-orange-red crown), Dolly Mollinger ( white / white-yellow-orange), Orangeri ( white / orange), Canasta and Shan- tray ( white / yellow), Demon Beauty ( white / white with yellow), Coloring ( white / light yellow), Papillon Blank ( white / lemon yellow), Parisien white / bright orange), Royal Haines ( white / yellow-orangecorrugated). Yellow two-tone - Holiday Inn INTER-Neishlan ( yellow flower, bright yellow crown), Chantherella ( yellow / yellow), Coloring ( yellow / bright pink, corrugated), Mondragon ( yellow / bright-A orange, corrugated), San-color ( yellow / bright yellow, large, corrugated).
Groups and varieties within groups vary in their suitability for forcing. In all groups there are varieties with good marginal properties, while a group of tacelliform daffodils are used only for forcing. In the open ground, daffodils tubular, coarse and fine-grained, poetic and with a crown( group 11) are widely used for spring flower bed design and cutting.
Some species of wild narcissus
Narcissus obvallaris ( H. shrouded) is characterized by small flowers with a tubular shaped crown, the color is light yellow.
Narcissus asturiensis ( N. Asturian) is a short-legged plant no more than 10 cm high with narrow linear leaves and small tubular flowers of yellow color.
Narcissus pseudonarcissus ( H. pseudonarcissus) is a tall plant with a long peduncle up to 25 cm, flowers small yellow.
Breeding, growing and care. Daffodils are propagated only by vegetative bulbs and babies. Bulbs of daffodils are divided into 3 samples and babies. There is also a special group of bulbs - extra. Narcissuses are a fairly shade-tolerant culture, but in the illuminated areas the quality of their flowers and bulbs is much higher than in the
shade. Daffodils adapt well to local conditions. They can grow both on a flower bed, and in a garden under the tree crowns, and on a lawn or lawn. Several years they can be without a transplant in the ground. To transplant them follows when they strongly expand, forming large nests of bulbs, and begin to oppress each other. Large bulbs are planted usually for 3-4 years, small bulbs - for 4-5 years.
Separation of daffodil bulbs according to parsing
Bulbs for parsing, cm Tubular, coarse, tacheto, terry Extra 5 or more
III 2,6-2,9 Children 2-2, 5
Melkorononchatye, poetic and other groups I 3 and more
Structure of bulbs of narcissuses by analysis
Extras Mnogoshvershinnye, high
I Two-peaked, pointed
III Single-peaked, flat Babes Flat, lateral
Narcissus not too crackedovatelny to the soil, they can be grown in any garden soil, but the most suitable light and medium loam with a powerful arable layer( 35-40 cm) and good drainage. Groundwater should not be more than 50-60 cm. Otherwise, in the seasons with abundant rainfall, the root tips may die off, which will lead to a deterioration in growth. The land should be well-cultivated, have enough humus, a good structure, a neutral reaction.
Daffodils are grown to produce:
large bulbs suitable for forcing;
large amount of planting material for the rapid reproduction of any varieties;
cut flowers in the open ground or for use in the spring floral decoration.
To increase the humus content, it is necessary to make compost. Daffodils do not tolerate manure, so you can only make it under the previous culture. Soil liming is also recommended for a previous culture.
The soil of the site under the planting of daffodils is prepared in the spring so that it can settle. The earth is dug to a depth of 35 cm, make peat, compost, sand, well perepred humus and superphosphate. The soil is cultivated several times during the summer.
Mineral fertilizers are applied in 2 doses, before planting the bulbs and next spring with a seal at a depth of 5-7 cm in total in doses: nitrogen - 20, phosphorus - 20, potassium - 30 g / m2.With such refueling, no fertilizing is required during the budding and flowering of narcissus.
The depth of planting of the bulbs depends on their size, local climatic conditions, soil type and number of years before the next excavation. Depending on the size of the bulbs, the depth of planting ranges from 10 to 20 cm, and sometimes up to 25 cm for the largest bulbs. The average depth of planting is 15 cm, on heavy lands - 12, on the lungs - 17, bulbs III parsing and babies - 10 cm from the bottom. Between the bulbs in a row a distance equal to 2 bulb diameters( 7-10 cm) is maintained. With a dense planting bulbs are larger, with rare - form more children. Daffodils are planted before other bulbous - in late August - early September. The period of rest at them small, and they should be planted before the beginning of a root formation. The first planted poetic, then small and coarse-grained, the latter tubular. The bulbs planted in optimum time before frost form roots up to 20 cm long, planted late, at the end of September, only 5 cm. In the first case, the daffodils better winter, bloom and form more bulbs. If the daffodils are planted in dry land, watering is required at the rate of 25-30 l / m2.If after landing there were heavy rains, it is recommended to feed nitrophous( 30-40 g / m2).Before planting the bulbs carefully scan and remove all suspicious: with spots soft to the touch, having holes near the bottom and damaged. It is also recommended to treat the bulbs with hot water from nematodes and onion flies, as well as with 0.1% solution of potassium permanganate or some fungicide.
After planting the bulbs the ground is mulched with peat or humus 2-3 cm layer. When the soil freezes by 4-5 cm, the daffodils should be covered with foliage, the straw layer 20 cm. Narcissus groups do not require poetic shelter. With strong equal conditions, daffodils freeze more often on light soils than on loams.
In the spring, after melting snow, shelter from daffodils is removed, and the mulching layer is left. And immediately, plantings are fed with nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of 20-30 grams of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2.In the beginning of autumn, 6-7 g of nitrogen and 6-8 g of potassium per 1 m2 are introduced. If in the second half of May and in June is hot, dry weather, then narcissuses should be watered from the time of regrowth and before the wilting begins. Watering in the period after flowering promotes the accumulation of nutrients in the bulb.
Bulbs are excavated usually in July, when leaves and roots have dried up. If the bulbs are not excavated, then after drying, the leaves are removed and loosened by rakes or light harrow, preventing the weeds from developing. In the second half of August, if there is dry weather, it is necessary to resume irrigation, because at this time the growth of roots begins.
/. Until the spring planted
in the fall the bulb
state of rest.
2. In spring with
rise and the soil the bulb
and the plant enters
into the growth phase.
3 - The culmination of the
growth phase is the
full development of
and flowering plants.
4. After flowering, the deciduous mass still serves as a battery of sunlight and nutrients for the bulb for a while, and then wilts and dies.
5. After the withering of the foliage, the bulb must remain for some time in the soil, where it gradually prepares to go into a state of rest and forms the daughter bulbs
The bulbs are cleaned immediately after lodging and yellowing of the leaves. It is impossible to delay, as the bulbs begin to take root again, and, in addition, late digging negatively affects their quality. Purification of bulbs is carried out during excavation, remove the earth, the remains of leaves and easily separating old roots. After drying, separate the baby. It is also recommended to treat the bulbs in a strong solution of potassium permanganate. Bulbs intended for subsequent planting are stored in boxes or boxes at a temperature of 22-24 ° C for 2 weeks, and then at 20 ° C before planting, air humidity 70-80 %.
The flowers of daffodils are cut off in the phase of the bud at the moment when the covering sheet bursts, and the bud becomes painted, the pedicel is bent. Since mucus containing toxic substances is released from the cut, daffodils can not be placed in a vase with other colors, which from this may prematurely fade, since the sticky juice will clog the vessels in their sections and the access to water will cease. Stems of daffodils should be immersed in water at a depth of 5 cm. The onset and duration of flowering of narcissuses are closely related to the temperature of the soil and air. The optimum temperature is 15 ° C, and the soil is 10-12 ° C.
Diseases and pests. Fusarium, gray rot( botrytis), sclerotic decay, penicillis rot, bacterial decay, viral mosaic, nematode ring rot, large narcissus fly, onion and tubercle murmur, root onion mite.