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  • Nephrology: a diet with polycystic kidney disease

    In any field of medicine and in any disease, the right diet is not the least important. To the rum of the basic rules, suitable for all nosologies, there are specific ones. They are only applicable in some cases. So the diet for polycystic kidneys is not suitable for certain diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Polycystic: characteristics of the disease

    Polycystic kidney disease is a chronic disease, accompanied by the development of multiple cystic cavities in the organ parenchyma. This pathology is congenital. Therefore, one of its most important characteristics is that with it, the renal kidney is affected.

    The parenchyma of the body develops a large number of cavities. This leads to compression of the structure of the organ, which, in the final analysis, reduces its functional capabilities.

    The formation of these cavities occurs as follows:

    1. Hereditary abnormalities in the development of tubular epithelium lead to an incorrect direction of division of their cells.
    2. The wrong direction of cell division leads to the fact that the newly formed cells begin to occupy the stroma of the tubules.
    3. Due to the gradual development of the epithelium of the villi at one end of the cells, a space begins to form between them, which is immediately filled with interstitial fluid.
    4. The proliferative process quickly leads to the formation of a capsule around the space. Which after that is already considered a cyst.

    A gradual increase in the number of cysts leads to compression of tubular structures. This disrupts their normal functioning. The fluid pressure( both primary and secondary urine) increases. Weakened function of the glomeruli of the kidneys. As a result, the excretory and filtration functions suffer. Gradually, the development of polycystosis leads to the complete death of functional kidney cells. Chronic renal failure develops, which ultimately can lead to death of a person.

    Effective treatment has not yet been developed. But the fact that nutrition with polycystic kidneys has a significant effect on the course of the disease is proved. Of course, expect any therapeutic effect is not worth it. First, the disease is congenital and its causes are at the genetic level. However, it is quite possible to slow the progression of pathology for years and decades.

    Effect of nutrition on the functioning of the kidneys

    The fact that any food has an effect on the kidney is an absolutely indisputable fact. It is enough to remember the school curriculum on biology. Kidneys are a kind of filter for blood. And this means that through them passes all that is in it.

    For a day through the nephrons passes up to 2 liters of blood, while forming 1.5-2 liters of urine.

    Briefly the filtering process looks like this. Blood enters the kidneys through the renal artery, which is already divided into smaller vessels in the organ. The smallest of these are the vessels of nephrons. Their number equals several million. In the nephron there are two such vessels. One brings blood into it, and the second - carries out. They, accordingly, are called the bringing and enduring vessels. Between them there is a kind of "filter".

    This is a collection of different membranes and podocytes - nephron cells that perform specific functions. So, the blood on the receiving vessel enters the nephron, where it passes through the "filter".Through the first membrane all molecules pass, the size of which does not exceed 6 nanometers. As a result, the vessel emanating from the membrane contains only plasma, red blood cells and electrolytes. All the rest goes to a special department of the nephron - the Bowman-Shumlyansky capsule.

    This is the so-called primary urine. She walks along the tubules of the nephron. The first is called the descending one. For the fact that it is directed toward the center of the kidney or to the lower parts of the nephron. Further, the tubule makes a loop and "rises parallel to the descending channel, called the descending canal, and only then does it exit the nephron into the interstitial space of the kidneys, where it joins a number of the same tubules with the secondary urine in the kidney cups."

    After the formation of primary urine in the descending and ascending tubules, many of the molecules are reabsorbed( re-aspirated) into the vasodilator, which thickens the tubules with a dense network. Many proteins, amino acids, lipids and electrolytes are reabsorbed here. If the reabsorption of organic molecules occurs under the action of specific tubules, then the reverse absorption of electrolytes occurs spontaneously under the influence of the laws of osmosis.

    This is important! In connection with these, it becomes clear that the use of certain foods and food components can exert a considerable burden on nephrons. The same applies to electrolytes. Among them, the most important is sodium, as the most common of them.

    Features of the diet in polycystic kidneys

    In addition to the basic dietary requirements for polycystic disease, the following diet is recommended:

    • The food should be fractional. Not less than 4-5 times a day. The total amount of liquid should not exceed 1.5 liters. The fact is that an increase in the amount of fluid will inevitably lead to an increase in the volume of primary urine. And this gives an additional load on the tubules.
    • Food should be dominated by plant foods. The plants contain smaller organic molecules. For example, vegetable and fruit proteins have several times less amino acids, which significantly reduces the overall size of the molecules. It is known that amino acids and many proteins do not pass through the "filter" and are reabsorbed in the kidney tubules. Also in plant foods contain unsaturated fatty acids. They are significantly smaller than lipids of animal origin. At the same time, these molecules carry an identical functional load for the organism.
    • Food should be thermally well cooked. This means that there should be no smoked products and fried foods. The fact is that these types of food processing lead to the formation of various organic molecules, which are practically not functional, they undergo reabsorption. For example, during the frying of most products dextrans are formed. They are almost entirely composed of dextrose molecules. This carbohydrate is part of the basic metabolism. But due to the fact that it consists of several bound dextrose molecules, the "filter" delays it, and additional energy is spent in the tubules to reabsorb dextrans.
    • Restriction of salt. A day is allowed not more than 0.5-1 gram of salt. This is due to the fact that it contains a large amount of sodium. And it is known to be the most common electrolyte in the body. As a result, its excess can cause a strong reabsorption of electrolytes and water. As a result, an increase in the volume of circulating plasma and blood pressure.

    All these recommendations in no way contribute to the regress of the disease. But a diet with polycystic kidneys slows down their functional extinction.

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