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  • Primula, or primrose

    Description. Primrose, or primrose, refers to early-flowering perennial plants. This group of flowers is one of the most popular and favorite, as most of its species have very beautiful flowers of various colors.

    Primula is a herbaceous rhizome with a root rosette of jagged leaves. The leaves remain green until the fall, sometimes even hibernate. Peduncles are leafless, in different species of primulae the number of peduncles varies from 1 to 5-9. - Flowers funnel-shaped or clove-like, the most diverse color - white, yellow, pink, carmine, violet, often with a contrastingly colored eye. In many species, primula flowers are large enough, reaching 5 cm in diameter. Depending on the shape of the flowers and inflorescences, as well as the location of the inflorescences on the plant, several groups of primulas are isolated.

    Pillow-shaped: The rosette of the plant consists of several densely located leaves, the plants are low, compact, peduncles short, slightly rising above the leaves, so it seems that the flowers are located directly in the foliage. Flowers are single, rarely in inflorescences, various colors. The

    primula of Julia and its hybrids belong to the group of pillow-like primulas. Spherical: small flowers collected in a large ball with a diameter of up to 8 cm, located on the top of the straight tall peduncle. This group includes primula finely toothed. Umbrellas: flowers are collected in an umbellate round or inclined inflorescence on a high peduncle rising from the thick of rosette leaves. This group includes the spring primrose, the primrose tall and the primula deviated.

    Tiered: inflorescence - a whorl of a candelabrum-shaped form - consists of several thin but sturdy peduncles, which are arranged in tiers relative to each other, so the flowers blossoming on them are at different levels. The brightest representative of this group - primula Japanese. Bell-shaped: a dense rosette of leaves looks very decorative, on inflorescences of different heights inflorescences with flowers of a drooping form are located, which gives the plant a resemblance to a bell. This group includes alpine primrose and primrose florinda.

    Kinds

    Primula Julia in height only 10 cm. Dense rosettes form a continuous carpet of leaves and flowers. Leaves glossy rounded, whole, serrated. The flower spike is short. The flowers are numerous, solitary in a variety of colors, often with a yellow speck in the center. Blossoms in April-May. This species is named in honor of Julia Mlokosevich, who opened it in the Caucasus in 1900.There is a large group of hybrids of primroses of Julia and among them such outstanding varieties of beauty as;Shnikissen( white), Purple-Kissen( purple-violet), Salvia( carmine-no-pink).

    Primrose common ( up to 25 cm) is common in the forests of the Carpathians, Crimea and the Caucasus. It blooms in April-May for a long time and abundantly. In garden forms the diameter of the flower is 2-5 cm, there are double forms, the leaves grow after flowering. Perhaps secondary flowering in September. Cold, sometimes damaged by brown spots, especially in wet years. Propagated by seeds, including samosevom. It is promising for planting on well drained, fertile soils in partial shade and in light with moderate moistening.

    Primula Voronova - up to 25 cm high, widely distributed in the forests of the Caucasus. Blossoms are abundant immediately after the snow falls in April and early May. Flowers are light lilac or pale pink, tender. Secondary flowering has been observed since September. Cold resistant, resistant to diseases. The leaves can sometimes be damaged by brown spots. Carries a landing in the shade on fertile moistened soils.

    Spring primrose ( up to 30 cm) grows in the forests of the East European Plain and the Carpathians. Blooms abundantly from the end of May to the middle of June. The flowers are bright yellow to 2 cm in diameter, collected in an umbrella. Intensity is intensive in July. Mass sowing. Cold-resistant. Propagated by seeds. Sick rarely. It is promising for planting in semi-shade and in open areas with fertile, clay soils, the most drought-resistant species. There are many hybrid forms.

    Primula high ( up to 35 cm) comes from the forests of the Carpathians. The flowers are bright yellow, flowering abundant from mid-April to mid-May. Perhaps secondary flowering in September. He is not sick. Cold resistant. Propagated by seeds, including mass samosevom. Suitable for planting in the shade and partial shade. The soils are undemanding. Of interest are high grade primrose Alba( with white flowers), Aurea( s mandarin-des-tymi) Goldrand( with rare brown), Ruby( s blood red) Tseruliya( blue).

    Primula pink is a charming plant, its bright cinnabar-pink shiny flowers, collected in an umbrella, blossom in early May, before the appearance of leaves. Leaves are elongated, small, leathery. In nature it occurs in the Himalayas, at an altitude of 3-4 thousand meters. In culture, it is capricious, requires vigilant attention, prefers clay-peaty moist soil, but without stagnation of water. There are large-flowered hybrids.

    Primula finely toothed is known in culture since the beginning of the last century. In nature it is found in the Far East, in China, in the Himalayas. Numerous leaves in the socket, oblong-lanceolate, during flowering length of 10-15 cm, later grow up to 40 cm. Flower arrows thick, covered with powdery bloom, at the beginning of flowering 10-15 cm tall, later stretched and often reach 40 at the time of fruiting-50 cm. The flowers are purple, pink, purple or white, collected in the head inflorescence 4-10 cm in diameter. Blooms from the end of April for 30-40 days. Prefers wet places. Winter hardiness. Suitable for cutting.

    Primrose Japanese. Its homeland is Japan. It is distinguished by oblong-lanceolate, dentate, intensely-green leaves with mesh veins up to 25 cm long. Floral arrows up to 35-45 cm tall. Flowers up to 1.5-2 cm in diameter, crimson, purple-red, pink, collected in umbellate inflorescences, arranged in tiers. Blooms from the lower tiers. Blooms from the end of May for 35-40 days. Suitable for cutting.

    Species

    Primrose primrose occurs naturally in Siberia and the Far East. This elegant richly flowering plant with delicate mauve, pink, white flowers, gathered in an umbrella, bloom later other primroses - in mid-May, flowering 20-25 days. On loose fertile soil it grows well due to thin, long, branching rhizomes.

    Polyanthus primroses. As a result of selection, a group of primulas, called polyanthus, was obtained. This is a complex hybrid, which has many varieties, among which there are single-celled ones with an eye, fringed, iridescent cultivators. They are characterized by a variety of texture of the corolla petals, the presence of corrugation, fringe along the edge of the petals. Inflorescence - a shield w 10-15 flowers, each up to 6 cm in diameter. The leaves remain under the snow. Representatives of this group bloom a little later than the previous ones, and finish flowering in early summer. The height of plants is 20-25 cm. Large-flowered representatives of this group are more capricious, but also more decorative.

    Primrose primrose opens yellow fragrant flowers in mid-May. They are collected in an umbrella 20-25 cm high. The leaves are dense, smooth, rounded, in a beautiful rosette, they hibernate under snow. This primrose was the object of worship in the Middle Ages for velvet petals, as if sprinkled with yellowish pollen Collections were very expensive and were only available to rich people. Now in the culture there are complex hybrids of this species with other primroses of Alpine origin under a single name - auricle primrose, having a variety of varieties with flowers of different colors and shades, usually muted tones, up to 4 cm in diameter.

    Cortusoid primroses grow in Manchuria, Korea, mountain forests of Eastern Siberia. Blooming in late May, at the very border of spring and summer. Flowers of pink and crimson hues, 2-2.5 cm in diameter, are collected in an umbrella up to 25 cm high. Leaves are long-petioled, ovate, dentate.

    Primula Zybold is common in the Amur region, Manchuria, Japan. Transbaikalia. Height 20-25 cm. The flowers are light and dark purple with a white center, about 3.5 cm in diameter. Flowering later, begins at the end of May Garden forms: Polly - pink, Miss Nelli Barnard - carmine-red, Snowflake - white, etc. The peculiarity of this kind of primula, which should be taken into account when constructing the flower garden.- partial dying off of leaves soon after flowering.

    Primula Viala - rare while in our gardens form. Her homeland is China. The leaves are elongated, slightly pubescent, covered with a light flour coating. The buds are bright red, the flowers are vivid lilac, collected in a pineal inflorescence - the ear, flower stalks up to 50 cm high. There are hybrid forms. This species in culture requires frequent seed renewal. Blooms in June for a month, causing constant admiration.

    Primula as a genus includes more than 500 species, among which there are both early blossoming, and those that please us in the summer, and even in its second half. There are a number of folk names for primroses: primrose( first early spring flower), lamb( for similarity of curly inflorescence with curls of wool), keys( for similarity with keychain), etc. Among the huge variety of primula species, several particularly promisingfloriculture. Many natural, or wild, primula species are interesting because they are very beautiful and undemanding to growing conditions, and also very responsive to cultivation. Primroses have been cultivated for more than 400 years. Now they are among the leading decorative perennials, are widely used in landscaping, for spring floral decoration of shady places, plants look very effectively in solitary and group plantings on the lawn, under trees or bushes along paths. Beautiful carpet bluffs are primrose in rockeries, in compositionswith boulders, where they are planted from the northern side of the stones. Effectively look flowering primroses against the background of evergreen conifers. Plant them with monochrome curtains or in a combination of colors.

    Cultivation and care. Primrose are unpretentious, very grateful and responsive to the care of plants. Primrose prefer penumbra, they should be planted under the translucent canopy of trees, bushes, in the sun, the period of their flowering is sharply reduced. Primrose is hygrophilous. In the sun with a lack of moisture, they grow poorly, often die. The root system of primulas is located in the surface layer of the soil, therefore, in dry weather, irrigation is necessary. Primrose like friable, moist soils, therefore, during the growing season, they should be watered often and abundantly, and then loosened the soil around the bush, but in soaking, heavy clay soils, drainage with a layer of at least 10 cm is necessary, since from an excess of soil moisture rotting of the root can be possibleplants. Organic fertilizers are recommended to be introduced in April, July and August of each year. Every spring, as well as after flowering, when active growth of roots begins, and on the eve of winter, peat, compost, a humus layer of 4-5 cm is poured into the bushes. Rhizomes that are very close to the surface of the soil are exposed and protruded. In winter such plants very often freeze. All primroses reproduce vegetatively - by dividing the bush, and generatively - by seeds.

    However, to preserve the desired properties of primulas, it is better to dilute by dividing. Bushes should be divided once in 3-4 years, by this time they are quite large. The best period for dividing and transplanting is the early spring or the end of July-August. After division, the plants are transplanted to a new site with a separation distance of 15-20 cm, then colorful carpeted shoes are created. Primrose can grow in one place up to 7 years, therefore are considered long-standing perennials. After this time, they must be finely divided and planted in a new location. Some types of primulas can also be cut. Garden primrose forms can be grown from seeds, but in this case plants are obtained, with a number of characteristics that differ from the parent ones. After flowering, fruit-boxes with small black seeds are formed. The capsule from above opens, and the seeds gradually scatter around. So with their collection we must hurry! Seeds of primrose quickly lose their germination, so it is better to sow in autumn with seeds harvested in the summer of the same year. The seeding depth is 5 mm.