Chloasma( cold, melasma, melasma) - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.
What diseases can be confused with chloasma and when to go to the doctor
Treatment of chloasma
Chloasma( cold, melasma, melasma) are brown spots not inflammatory in nature, localized on the cheeks, forehead, sometimes even on the neck. The disease is more susceptible to those who have dark skin. According to statistics, melanodermia is more common in women than in men( 10% of the total number of cases).
Appearance of chloasma
Causes of chloasma
• Pigmentation of this type occurs due to overproduction of melanin pigment by cells - melanocytes.
• There is a genetic predisposition to the disease.
• When the exact cause of the disease is not specified, it is believed that chloasma occurs under the influence of hormones. For this reason, it most often appears in pregnant women, when using contraceptives and other hormonal drugs.
• The sun's rays also stimulate the production of melanin and increase the likelihood of melasma.
• Use of certain cosmetics or products, such as bergamot, may aggravate the course of the disease.
With what dangerous diseases it is easy to confuse the chloasma
• Adnexitis - inflammation of the appendages that occurs as a result of the infectious process. The disease can be asymptomatic, affecting only the hormonal processes in the body. Therefore, chloasma, in this case, indicates the presence of a more serious disease.
• Birthmarks - congenital hyperpigmentation of the skin. Can appear on all areas of the face and body. From such spots you can not get rid of acids or peelings, as they can be regenerated into a malignant neoplasm.
• Liver disease - causes metabolic disorders in the body, resulting in excessive deposition of melanin in the superficial layers of the dermis.
When to consult a doctor
To properly diagnose chloasma, you should go to a dermatologist who will collect a detailed history of your disease. Examine the pigmentation with special equipment( most often a Wood lamp), using dermoscopy will determine the type and depth of the spots.
If you are using birth control pills or hormone therapy and are seeing this type of blemishes, contact your gynecologist immediately. You may need to replace the protection method with another one.
Chloasma can spontaneously appear and also disappear suddenly. In such cases, a possible cause may be pregnancy. However, if the stains persist for a long time, and do not disappear when using creams, you can not do without the advice of a professional.
Symptomatic treatment of chloasma
• Lemon - lemon juice acid will help peel off the top layer of the skin, lighten the pigmentation on the cheeks, nose, forehead and upper lip. Mix lemon juice with baking soda. Use as a peeling. If the face is treated systematically with this mixture, the effect should be visible after 3 weeks of use.
• Apple vinegar - the solution removes stains, makes the face lighter. Apple vinegar diluted with water one to one and daily wipe the mixture with a face. Use only fresh solution, do not store in diluted condition!
• Aloe Vera Gel contains mucous polysaccharides that have a beneficial effect on the skin, thus brightening dark spots. The gel obtained from the plant is applied to the skin at night or 15 minutes after washing.
• Turmeric .Mix 5 tablespoons of turmeric powder with 10 tablespoons of warm milk( like dough).Blend the mixture on your face and allow it to dry. After 10 minutes rinse with warm water and dry with a towel. Repeat the procedure every day until the blemishes are brightened.
• Oatmeal with honey .We will make them these peeling products, which will not only lighten the dark spots on the face, but also remove the dead cells. Oatmeal and honey mix, mix the massage with massage movements in the face, leave for 30 minutes, then rinse with warm water.
• Onion juice - reduces the production of melanin and brightens dark pigmentation. Simply slice 1 onion, then add 1 tablespoon of 3% vinegar. Wipe this mixture face 2 times a day.
• Horseradish .For use, you can use both tincture and fresh horseradish juice. Apply it directly to problem areas of the skin. Apply and leave to dry for 20 minutes. Use once a week.
Treatment by a cosmetologist
Some treatments for a cosmetologist help to reduce or prevent the appearance of melasma:
• Chemical peeling - is an acid that can exfoliate and discolor skin cells.
• Microdermabrasion or dermabrasion - abrasive methods for removing upper layers of the skin.
• Laser peeling - burning spots with a laser beam.
• Photorejuvenation - discoloration of stains with a special light device.
• Mesotherapy - vitamin injections.
• Cryotherapy - freezing with liquid nitrogen.
The chemicals used to treat chloasma are characterized by good efficacy, but high toxicity. These include: kojic acid, azaleic acid, and sedimentary mercury.
These substances are part of many creams and ointments, such as Achromin, Melan, Euphorbia, perdrelrol, sulfuric and hydroquinone ointment. They are sold in pharmacies without a prescription.
It is very difficult to recover from melasma, and even if it is possible to get rid of stains, their re-emergence tends to frequent relapses.
Be careful in the summer. With frequent use of bleaching agents, the skin becomes more sensitive to the influence of UF rays.
In order to avoid the re-occurrence of chloasma, you must take care of your skin, especially in the summer!
- Use creams with a high SPF( protective filter from 30 to 60),
- Eliminate irritating cosmetics and perfumes.
- Drink plenty of water( up to 1.5 liters per day).
- Eat foods rich in fiber. It removes toxins from the body, reduces the discoloration of the skin and prevents the appearance of a copy.
Doctor cosmetologist Kondratenko NA