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Hemangioma of the kidney, the reasons for its formation and the choice of appropriate treatment

  • Hemangioma of the kidney, the reasons for its formation and the choice of appropriate treatment

    Hemangioma of the kidney is a vascular tumor of the kidney of a benign nature. The kidney tumor itself is a pathological growth of the kidney parenchyma, which includes altered cells.

    In general, renal hemangioma is detected in people in old age, and in women it is diagnosed several times more often, but can be detected in newborns, children, teenagers, and people of working age.

    There is a high risk of conversion of renal hemangioma to a malignant tumor. If the doctor suspects the development of such a process, then a complete examination of the patient is carried out and when establishing the hazard, the organization of tumor removal is shown.

    Hemangioma, provided its small size does not cause any symptoms and does not manifest itself in any way, but if it grows, the surrounding tissues become squeezed and blood flow is disturbed, and this provokes the development of hematuria, that is, the appearance of blood in the urine. Painful sensations in the lumbar region, rapid fatigue, weakness, malaise indicate the growth of the tumor. The obstruction of the urinary canals can provoke renal colic and cause severe pain in the lumbar region.

    Causes of the development of the disease

    The main factors that increase the risk that hemangioma of the left kidney or right kidney will form are infectious pathologies that damage the future mother's body, which were transferred in the early stages of the child's bearing in the formation of its vascular system. In this case, hemangioma is diagnosed almost immediately after birth or at the end of the first month of life of the baby. In 7% of newborns, hemangioma itself disappears as it grows, but in other cases specialist intervention is required.

    In addition, possible causes of kidney hemangioma are heredity, harmful addictions, especially smoking, radiation exposure, weak immunity, AIDS and HIV infection. Also, hemangioma can form as a complication after the defeat of the body by certain chronic pathologies of the kidneys and urinary system.

    The onset of a period of increased body growth, namely early childhood, adolescence or pregnancy, can trigger further growth of the hemangioma. But, despite all the factors, the risk and age characteristics, most often hemangioma is diagnosed in people over the age of seventy.

    Symptoms of the disease

    Symptoms of kidney hemangioma with its small size are often completely absent. But if the tumor starts to expand, it presses on surrounding tissues and interferes with normal blood circulation to them, therefore at early stages of the disease in the urine, blood is detected. At times, the blood in the urine appears suddenly and the hematuria is constantly increasing.

    With the growth of hemangioma, the patient begins to complain of rapid fatigue, poor overall health, weakness, dull aching pain in the lumbar region from the affected side.

    If blood clots are found in the urinary canals, then this process can provoke strong strong unexpected pain sensations in the lower back - kidney colic that develops when the urinary tract is blocked and blood flow in this area is blocked.

    The hemangioma of the right kidney or left kidney during compression of the renal veins causes the development of varicocele in men, that is, the expansion of veins in the spermatic cord.

    If a growing tumor presses on the renal arteries, then over time the patient may begin a steady increase in arterial blood pressure of renal origin, but this manifestation is very rare.

    Symptoms of hemorrhage or rupture of renal hemangioma are: an unexpected manifestation of severe pain in the abdomen or lower back, the appearance of a large amount of blood in the urine, a sharp weakening of the body, a decrease in blood pressure. Perhaps the onset of loss of consciousness.

    Diagnosis of the disease

    Most often, the hemangioma of the kidneys is asymptomatic and is diagnosed quite accidentally during the organization of an ultrasound or radiographic study relating to the identification of other pathologies.

    Due to the fact that tumors of a malignant nature are often found in the kidneys, differential diagnostics is required initially when a hemangioma is suspected. An ultrasound examination, X-ray examination, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is organized. Scintigraphy or in another way a radioisotope examination of the kidneys makes it possible to establish the norm of the functioning of the organ and to identify possible obstructions of the urinary canals.

    But sometimes even in a comprehensive study it is impossible to differentiate hemangioma from a malignant tumor. In such conditions, the tumor is to be removed with a subsequent histological examination of the tissues.

    Treatment process

    Treatment of renal hemangioma in the event of a final diagnosis should begin with monitoring the organ. With a small tumor size - up to 3 cm in diameter, when it does not press on the parenchyma of the kidney and on the blood vessels in it, does not expand and causes malignancy, it should not be touched. In the opposite situation, surgical intervention is required.

    Renal hemangioma differs from other types of benign tumors in that a biopsy is not organized during the examination, that is, taking the neoplasm tissue for histological examination, because the risk of bleeding increases. In this regard, the histological examination is carried out at a time when the patient is already on the operation. If laboratory studies do not confirm malignancy of the tumor, then an organ-preserving operation is required, namely, resection of the affected kidney within the healthy parenchyma.

    If malignant cells are detected in the kidney tissues, the kidney is removed, and after the operation is completed, combined therapy with radiation therapy and chemotherapy is prescribed.

    Usually, the prognosis of kidney hemangioma remains favorable and with proper implementation of the operation, hemangioma ceases to develop, but patients must be under constant medical supervision to prevent recurrence of the disease and convert it to a malignant tumor.

    With a small amount of hemangioma in the kidney, only the patient's medical supervision is required. And as the growth increases, the doctor can prescribe the use of hormonal medications that improve the work of immunity. With a large tumor size, an operation is performed, during which the hemangioma or the entire affected organ is removed. Most often the tumor does not recur, but this does not mean that you can refuse periodic preventive visits to the doctor.

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