Hemorrhage in the eye - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.

  • Hemorrhage in the eye - Causes, symptoms and treatment. MF.

    Hemorrhage occurs as a result of damage to the walls of blood vessels during mechanical exposure and in pathological conditions( diseases or trauma).

    Causes of

    hemorrhages 1. The most common causes are blunt injuries of the eye( concussion).When the damage occurs due to the impact of the force directly on the eye( blow to the eye) or through the surrounding tissues of the eye with damage to the bones of the skull, orbits( blow to the head) and even to other parts of the body( injuries of the chest, trunk).Manifestations of contusions do not always correspond to its real severity. Externally, minor bruises can lead to severe changes in the eyeball. Damage to the organs of vision accompanies the closed trauma of the brain.

    Eye structure

    There are three degrees of contusion:

    I - easy. There is no damage to the structures of the eye and vision is restored completely.

    II - medium. There are damage to the structures of the eye, vision is reduced to light.

    III - heavy. Irreversible structural changes leading to functional and cosmetic loss of the eye.

    2. Hemorrhage in the eye can occur due to circulatory disorders, damage to the vascular wall in general diseases of the body. With arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, arterial narrowing and vein thickening( angiopathy of the retina), gradually leading to a violation of the elasticity of the vessels, increasing their fragility. The walls of the vessels, covered with atherosclerotic plaques and ulcers, lose their elasticity. Become less resistant to mechanical stress. And when the arterial pressure rises, the vessel bursts, a hemorrhage occurs. Diabetes mellitus, regardless of type, develops diabetic retinopathy - retinal vascular injury. As a result of disturbances in metabolic processes, the vascular wall is weakened, microaneurysms develop( protrusions of the vessel wall), which lead to hemorrhages. Hemorrhages often occur in diseases of connective tissue( systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, vasculitis, etc.), with blood diseases( anemia, leukemia), disorders of the blood coagulopathy, as a result of increased vascular permeability and their fragility.

    3. Intraocular tumors. There is compression and damage to blood vessels.

    4. Inflammatory diseases of the choroid of the eye( uveitis), iris( iritis).

    5. Myopia( nearsightedness - blurred vision).Stretching of the eyes with myopia leads to the formation of cracks in the choroid.

    6. Anomalies in the development of the vascular system of the eye.

    7. Intensive physical activity;in parturient women during labor, with strong attempts;sharp and violent screaming, coughing.

    Hemorrhages occur in the anterior chamber, in the vitreous, in the retina of the eye and in the orbit itself.

    Hemorrhage in the anterior chamber of the eye is called hyphema.

    Represents a uniform red formation with smooth contours. Blood spreads throughout the anterior chamber, but with the vertical position, it usually settles on the bottom. Vision usually does not decrease if the hyphema does not cover the pupil area. A distinctive feature is rapid resorption, for several days.


    Specific treatment of hyphema does not require, sometimes appoint drops of potassium iodide 3% 3 times a day for a week. But if the hyphema persists for more than 10 days, especially in the elderly, this indicates the development of complications: glaucoma( increased intraocular pressure), uveitis( inflammation of the choroid), cataract formation. In this case, it is surgically removed in the ophthalmology department. If you have a hyphema, you should avoid taking NSAIDs( aspirin, ibuprofen, etc.) in any form( pills, eye drops), anticoagulants( heparin) because they can disrupt the blood coagulation system. Some patients may develop glaucoma when taking atropine.

    Hemorrhage in the vitreous body - hemophthalmus.

    Occurs when the choroid of the eye is damaged. A homogeneous brown formation is visible behind the lens. Complete( total) hemophthalmus leads to loss of vision, and partial - to its significant decrease. Patients are worried about the presence of dark motile spots, flashes of light before the eyes. Hemophthalmia is a severe eye injury requiring immediate medical attention. With timely and vigorous treatment in a specialized ophthalmological center, preservation of vision is possible. Residual hemophthalmus can lead to serious complications: detachment of the retina, atrophy of the eyeball.


    Hemorrhage in the retina

    External manifestations depend on the extent to which the retina is involved. Patients complain about the blurriness of objects before the eyes, floating flies, a grid in front of the eyes that shifts when the eye moves, reducing visual acuity. Extensive and frequent hemorrhages can lead to complete loss of vision.

    With a single and limited bleeding recommended rest and relaxation for the eyes. Assign vasoconstrictive and hemostatic drugs. In urgent hospitalization in the ophthalmology department, patients with extensive hemorrhage into the retina are needed.

    Hemorrhage in the orbit.

    The most common cause is a contusion of the eye's orbit, but can occur in vasculitis, blood diseases.

    It is manifested by exophthalmos( glaucoma) - a sharp shift of the eyeball forward, restriction of eye movement, double vision( diplopia), decreased vision, bleeding in the skin of the eyelids and conjunctiva. Hemorrhage under the skin of the eyelids in the form of "glasses", which appears a day and a later - a sign of fracture of the base of the skull.

    Laboratory research.

    1 General blood test. The rate of bleeding and the time of blood clotting. To exclude coagulopathies( bleeding disorders and blood diseases).

    2. Blood sugar. To exclude diabetes mellitus.

    Obligatory examination of the oculist and the therapist even with a slight hemorrhage and minor trauma.

    Hemorrhage in the eye is a consequence of trauma or illness. It can not be cured at home. Timely treatment of the underlying disease prevents further hemorrhages in the eye and the development of severe complications( blindness).

    Doctor therapist Vostrenkova IN