What should be the norm of glucose in the blood?
Glucose is an important energy supplier for body cells. The level of glucose in the blood during the day can fluctuate due to various external factors, such as physical activity, nutrition, stress, etc. However, due to the action of the hormone of the pancreas( insulin), the glucose level should remain in certain regulatory indicators.
Normally, glucose is strictly regulated in such a way that it is available to the tissues of the human body in the form of an energy source, while there was no excess, excreted in the urine.
Blood Glucose Norm
The blood glucose level, regulated by the endocrine system, is the same for adults and children. At the same time, some slight increases in normal indices during pregnancy, as well as in people over 60 years of age, are allowed.
Normal values are in the range:
- on an empty stomach - 3,3-5,5 mmol / l;
- after meals - no more than 6.1 mmol / l.
- Indicators depending on age( on an empty stomach):
- newborns - 2,2-3,3 mmol / l;
- children - 3.3-5.5 mmol / l;
- adults - 3,5-5,9 mmol / l;
- after 60 years of age - 4.4-6.4 mmol / l.
- When pregnant - 3,6-6 mmol / l.
With a constant deviation of blood sugar from the norm, there is a high risk of the development of vascular and nerve damage, which in turn leads to serious diseases of human organs and systems.
Methods for establishing blood glucose level
Various types of samples are used to establish glucose values in blood serum:
- on an empty stomach( basal);
- 2 hours after eating;
- regardless of food intake( random).
1 .Fasting blood glucose analysis
For this analysis, according to medical requirements, fasting blood should be taken. This means that the meal should be stopped 8-12 hours before the test. In addition, before conducting this study, you should not smoke, exercise. It is also important to consider that the results obtained may be influenced by the intake of certain medications( for example, salicylates, antibiotics, vitamin C, etc.), emotional stress, alcohol intake, prolonged fasting, etc.
An empty blood glucose level should be3.5-5.5 mmol / l( 60-100 mg /%).If the analysis is above or below the norm, additional laboratory measurements, preferably on different days, will be required to obtain accurate results.
2. Post-meal glucose analysis
This test is performed after meals, no earlier than 1.5-2 hours. Normal in this case are the indices no more than 6.1 mmol / l.
It is believed that in order to identify diabetes mellitus or another disease, it is necessary to combine two tests: on an empty stomach and after eating.
3. Analysis of glucose regardless of food intake
This analysis is used in conjunction with other studies. It is necessary to assess the glucose level in the blood of a person as a whole, as well as to control the treatment of diseases associated with the violation of blood sugar, for example, in diabetes mellitus.
It should be noted that for biochemical analysis, blood can be taken from the finger or from the vein. At the same time, the blood sugar values taken from the vein will be 12% higher than the blood taken from the finger.
Increased sugar content
Increased blood sugar - hyperglycemia, leads to the fact that sugar, contained in large quantities in the blood, will not be absorbed by the tissues completely.
Constantly elevated glucose concentration in such a case will contribute to the disruption of metabolism, the formation of toxic metabolic products, the common poisoning of the body. Significant increase in blood glucose levels can be indicated by strong thirst, frequent urination, weight loss, dry skin and mucous membranes, nausea, drowsiness, fatigue, prolonged healing of even minor scratches, the appearance of boils.
The increase in blood glucose levels can be indicative of the presence of diabetes mellitus, as well as being an indicator:
- physiological manifestations( exercise, stress, infection, etc.);
- endocrine diseases( pheochromocytosis, thyrotoxicosis, acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, gigantism, glucagonoma, etc.);
- pancreatic disease( pancreatitis, pancreatic tumor, etc.);
- presence of other diseases( stroke, heart attack, stenocardia, chronic liver disease, kidney, etc.)
Reduced content of
Reduced blood sugar - hypoglycemia. With blood glucose readings below 3.3 mmol / l, the patient experiences sweating, weakness, fatigue, trembling throughout the body, a constant feeling of hunger, increased excitability, and increased heart rate.
A decrease in blood glucose can indicate hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus, as well as the presence of:
- pancreatic disease;
- liver disease;
- endocrine diseases( hypopituitarism, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, etc.);
- functional disorders( CNS damage, gastroenterostomy, etc.).