Diabetes with type 2 diabetes
Apr 07, 2018
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is known to be insulin-independent, that is, the pancreasa sick person, insulin produces( sometimes even in excess).
However, due to metabolic disorders, the body fails, resulting in cells unable to use the produced insulin, and without getting vital glucose, begin to experience energy hunger,
This is because the cells of the body tissues become insensitiveto their own hormone-insulin, that is, they simply stop "seeing" it and blocking it "access".
As a result, insulin resistance develops( insensitivity to insulin), when the level of insulin in the blood becomes disproportionate to the level of sugar.
Causes of type 2 diabetes ^
The main causes of type 2 diabetes, called doctors:
- hereditary factor,
- pancreatic disease,
The second type of diabetes mellitus is called acquired, or "full people's diabetes", because, much more often it is caused not by a genetic predisposition( family diabetes), but by an incorrect way of life.
The insidiousness of this disease is that it manifests itself far from immediately - according to the doctors, from the onset of the disease to the first clinical signs requiring medical help, an average of about 8 years.
As a result, a person turns to the doctor too late, when the pancreas has lost the ability to fully produce insulin.
The main complaints of patients with this are:
- strong thirst,
- constant feeling of hunger,
- weight loss,
- rapid and abundant( up to 8-9 liters per day) urination.
In the early stages of the disease, it is difficult to diagnose type 2 diabetes - this is done only by laboratory tests, since the usual blood sugar analysis does not exceed the prescribed norm. To determine the diagnosis, determine the blood sugar curve with glucose or sucrose load. If the load is determined by a high sugar rise - this indicates a latent form of diabetes, or prediabetes.
Therefore, you need to know the earliest typical symptoms of type 2 diabetes that you should pay attention to and help diagnose the disease at the very beginning. These include:
- dry mouth or sticky saliva,
- too dry skin,
- cataract development and blurred vision,
- appearance of pruritus( including in the vagina),
- pustular skin lesions( boils, carbuncles, neurodermatitis),
- extremely rapid progression of dental caries.
In addition, the development of the disease can indicate numbness and cramps of the lower extremities, hair loss on the legs, increased hair growth on the face, slower than before, wound healing, the appearance of small yellow growths on the body and inflammation of the foreskin in menfor frequent urination).
The main provocative factor in the development of insulin-independent diabetes is called overweight and obesity by physicians, and the full person seems to fall into a vicious circle:
- The fact is that fatty tissue is insulin-dependent, that is, the more it is, the more insulin is needed.
- Excess insulin, in turn, contributes to the further accumulation of fat.
- The release of large doses of insulin causes a strong sense of hunger and the person begins to eat even more, resulting in increased excess weight, increases insulin resistance and gradually overloaded pancreas is destroyed.
In order to avoid such a development of events, it is necessary to reduce the amount of insulin-dependent tissue( fat) to the norm. Therefore, weight loss is the main means of compensating type 2 diabetes and the only way to avoid such formidable complications of the disease as kidney damage, diabetic foot, loss of vision and heart and vascular disease.
Diabetes in type 2 diabetes ^
The diet for type 2 diabetes is a vital necessity, without exaggeration, because, due to proper nutrition, you can not only normalize weight, but also avoid dangerous complications.
According to the doctors, with strict adherence to the diet( lifelong), type 2 diabetes can be successfully treated without medication.
Correctly formulated diet will necessarily lead to positive changes in the course of the disease - the sensitivity of cells and tissues to your insulin will gradually increase, fat and carbohydrate metabolism will improve.
The basic principles of a diet for diabetes mellitus type 2
- It is necessary to organize a fractional and frequent( at least 5 to 6 times a day) food, and you need to ensure that calories and carbohydrates are distributed evenly for each meal.
- The daily norm of food is recommended to be divided as follows: first breakfast, lunch and first dinner - 25% each, second breakfast - 15%, afternoon tea and second supper - 5%.
This mode of nutrition will ensure the best absorption of nutrients contained in foods, and, in addition, which is very important, will help to avoid the development of hypoklikemia, an extremely dangerous condition when the patient has a sharp drop in blood glucose.
In hypoklikemia, the following alarming symptoms appear in a person:
- develops sudden weakness,
- intense sweating,
- feeling of intolerable hunger,
- tremble hands and feet,
- whirls head,
- possible unmotivated acts.
This condition is especially dangerous because, if you do not provide urgent care, there may be convulsions, loss of consciousness and development of hypoglycemic coma.
To avoid fatal complications, it is urgent to give the patient easily digestible carbohydrates, which very quickly increase the level of glycemia( within 3-5 minutes) - for this, a diabetic patient should always carry a few pieces of sugar or fruit juice.
This is especially necessary if physical exertion is due, which can also lead to a sharp drop in blood glucose, down to hypoglycemic coma. In elderly and senile age, the state of hypoglycemia is most dangerous, as the probability of rapid development of heart attack and stroke increases sharply.
Individual calculation of daily calorie intake should take into account body weight and physical activity. The ideal weight for men is calculated by the formula( growth - 100) - 10%;the ideal weight of a woman( -100) is 15%.
- People with an ideal body weight need 25 Kcal per day for each kilogram of weight, if the norm is exceeded to 10%, caloric content should be reduced to 20 Kcal,
- for obesity and weight excess of up to 50% is enough 17 Kcal,
- for obesity 3 to 4 degreesand exceeding body weight by more than 50%, the caloric content of the diet should not exceed 15 Kcal per kilogram.
Depending on work and physical activity, the calculated daily calorie content is increased as follows:
- for easy physical work by 1/3,
- for moderate work - on?,
- for heavy physical work by 60%,
- for very heavy physical work -twice.
Providing the body with proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fats and minerals should be carried out in physiologically necessary quantities for the body:
- ( proteins 1 - 1.5 g, fats 0.75 - 1.5 g, carbohydrates 4.5 - 5 grams perkilogram of body weight).
- By caloric content of proteins should take about 20% of the total number of calories, carbohydrates - 50 - 60%, fats - about 30% of daily calories.
It is necessary to completely exclude or limit as much as possible in the diet refined digestible carbohydrates( sweets, pastries, sweet drinks, alcohol).In addition, you need to reduce the intake of cholesterol and animal fats - about 2/3 of their daily amount should account for vegetable oils( olive, sunflower, corn).
The correct calculation of the required amount of carbohydrates is the key point of diabetic diet, as carbohydrates are the most important source of nutrition and energy for cells. To facilitate the calculation of carbohydrates, in the international dietetics introduced the concept of "bread unit"( XE), which allows you to quickly navigate the carbohydrate value of the product.
For each patient with diabetes, the individual daily norm of HE should be calculated by the physician taking into account:
- body weight,
- physical activity,
- severity of the disease,
- adverse complications,
- of medications taken( 8 to 22 XE).
The table below shows the products containing 1 unit of bread, which helps to find substitutes for certain products equivalent in carbohydrates and make a varied and rich menu.
Product quantity table containing 1 XE
|dairy products: kefir, cream, milk - 200 ml||watermelon - 270 g|
|white bread - 20 g||orange - 150 g|
|black bread - 25 g||banana, persimmon, grapes - 70cracker, crackers - 15 g||plum, cherry, pear, apple - 90 g|
|pasta, horns, noodles - 15 g||melon - 100 g|
|corn - 100 g||figs - 80 g|
|semolina, flour, buckwheat,kukur.flakes - 15 g||strawberries, strawberries - 160 g|
|rice, millet, oatmeal, pearl bar - 15 g||peach, gooseberry - 120 g|
|oat flakes - 15 g||mandarin, raspberry 150 g|
|fried potatoes - 35 g||apricot, kiwi, mango - 110 g|
|mashed potatoes - 75 g||blueberries, cranberries, blackberries - 140 g|
|boiled potatoes - 65 g||currants, pineapples, quinces - 140 g|
|potato chips - 25 g||grapefruit, pomegranate - 170 g|
|kvass, beer - 250 ml||ice cream - 60 g|
|sugar - 10 g|
In mixed products( pancakes, varenik, Burgers, cheese cakes) XE quantity should be calculated on the basis of the composition and amount of incoming components. Instead of sugar in the preparation of meals you can use xylitol, sorbitol or fructose( daily rate - no more than 40 grams per day).But, since they are caloric, they are not recommended for patients with obesity, with excess weight it is better to use sugar substitutes.
With regard to the use of alcoholic beverages, diabetics need to be very cautious and moderate, since the pancreas is extremely sensitive to alcohol, and alcohol prevents the exit of the liver from the excess of sugar. When you consume 200 - 300 g of a strong drink, the sugar level rises sharply after 30 minutes, and after 3-4 hours it also drops sharply.
Alcoholic hypoglycemia is very dangerous in that it does not develop immediately, but often happens in a dream, leading to a fatal outcome. Therefore, diabetics are forbidden champagne and wine with a sugar content of more than 5%.Only the use of dry wines and dry champagne( not more than 200 ml) and beer( up to 300 ml) is allowed.
Dietary prescriptions for type 2 diabetes mellitus ^
In conclusion, I want to note that, despite the fact that the diet for diabetes mellitus of both the first and second types must be observed for life, do not despair. With a creative approach to making a menu, your diet can be useful, tasty and varied. In the proof of this we give some recipes for dietary dishes.
- Rinse and chop cabbage( 80 g), beetroot( 80 g) and potatoes( 120 g) into cubes, carrots( 15 g) and celery root( 20 g) in circles.
- Prepared vegetables in a vegetable broth( 350 ml) and cook for 150 minutes over moderate heat.
- Onion( 20 g), saute on butter( 20 g), then add to it finely chopped tomatoes without skin( 45 g) and pass for 10 more minutes.
- Put in the borscht tomato paste, flour paste, fried onions, salt and cook for another 5 minutes.
- Before serving, add sour cream and finely chopped greens of dill and celery.
- For cooking, you will need - 1 steep egg, 120 g of low-fat cooked beef, 50 g of potatoes, 50 g of carrots, 100 g of fresh cucumbers, 40 g of mayonnaise or sour cream, 0.5 l of bread kvass, 2 g of salt.
- Cut the meat, egg and vegetables into cubes, add onions, greens, salt and pour kvass.
- Before serving, add sour cream or mayonnaise.
- Grate the peeled potatoes( 100 g), add grated raw carrots( 50 g), egg yolk( 1/2), 15 ml of milk, 10 g of flour, beaten egg white( 1/2).
- Stir, salt, shape pancakes and bake in the oven( preheated to 120-150 ° C) on a baking sheet greased with vegetable oil.
- Before consumption, add sour cream and greens.
Curd cake with fruits and nuts
- Wipe 400 g of curd through a sieve, add 2 beaten eggs, 90 g of flour, 90 g of bran, 90 g of xylitol, 3 g of soda, 90 g of ground walnuts, 0.2 g of citric acid, salttaste.
- Mix well, put into a mold( sprinkled with flour), decorate with fruit pieces on top and bake in a preheated oven( 200-220 ° C) until cooked.