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Thrombosis: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of thrombosis

  • Thrombosis: causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of thrombosis

    Thrombosis develops when blood clots form in the blood vessels, which prevent the free movement of blood.

    If the disease is not treated, it is possible to block the vessel and block the movement of blood.

    Classification


    Thrombosis is divided into:

    1. 1) Arterial( occurs quite rarely);
    2. 2) Venous.
    Venous thrombosis has a variety of subspecies, but most often there is deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities. It is characterized by the appearance of blood clots in the deep veins of the legs.

    According to another classification, thrombosis is divided into:

    1. 1) Occlusal - clots are attached to the vein wall;
    2. 2) Flotation - the blood clot moves through the vein.

    Causes of a thrombus


    There are 3 main causes of thrombosis, which are called the "triad of Virchow":

    1. 1) Excessive clotting of blood;
    2. 2) Chemical, mechanical, infectious and allergic damages of vessel walls;
    3. 3) Slowing movement of blood.
    The development of the disease is facilitated by:


    • elderly age;
    • cardiovascular disease;
    • diabetes;
    • excess weight;
    • pregnancy and childbirth;
    • fractures;
    • frequent trips;
    • a sharp change in the level of mobility;

    Clinical manifestations of


    In general, the symptoms of thrombosis are identified as:

    1. 1) Severe puffiness;
    2. 2) Swelling of the veins;
    3. 3) Changes in skin color( cyanosis) in the place where the thrombus was formed.
    These signs may be supplemented:

    • with periodic pain in the leg muscles;
    • sudden pain in the heart;
    • loss of sensitivity and motor control, which are combined with severe migraine headaches;
    • pain, blanching, cold skin and the disappearance of the pulse of the limb;
    • with redness;
    • fever at the site of a thrombus;
    • feeling of heaviness in the legs;
    • is a manifestation of chills;
    • weakness;
    • loss of visual or speech ability.
    Unfortunately, often deep vein thrombosis can be asymptomatic, causing a sudden death.

    Possible complications of


    Thrombosis can cause development:

    • thromboembolism;
    • myocardial infarction;
    • ischemic disease;
    • phlebitis and thrombophlebitis;
    • stroke;
    • paralysis;
    • gangrene;
    • is a blockage of the pulmonary artery.
    Flotation thrombosis, which develops without manifestations of symptoms, is especially dangerous. In this case, the thrombus can penetrate into the artery, suitable for the lungs, and completely cork it, leading to a fatal outcome. If a blood clot penetrates into blood vessels that bring blood to the brain, it leads to a stroke or paralysis.

    Read also, symptoms of thrombophlebitis of the veins of the lower extremities.

    Diagnosis of thrombosis


    The diagnosis of thrombosis is handled by a phlebologist. The main method that is used to detect thrombosis is duplex scanning. It shows the lumens of the veins, their constriction and the presence of a floating thrombus.

    If doubts arise in the results of duplex scanning, or the thrombus is localized above the inguinal fold, then the use of radiopaque phlebography is resorted to. It allows you to accurately locate the thrombus.

    Occasionally, MR-phlebography, CT angiography, ultrasound dopplerography of veins, radionuclide scanning, and MNO of blood are used. These methods allow an effective evaluation of the patient's blood circulation. The INR makes it possible to determine the degree of clotting of the blood. Ultrasonic dopplerography of blood vessels allows us to determine the change in blood flow velocity, the state of the vascular walls, and detect thrombi. The location of the thrombus is determined by radionuclide scanning.

    The doctor also takes the flagellum and march samples. With a tourniquet sample, the patient's legs are wound with an elastic bandage and evaluated for his sensations, the nature of the filling of the veins and the blood flow. At the march test, the patient's leg is also bandaged with an elastic bandage. But in this case he walks. If there is a feeling of bursting pain, then most likely in the vein is a thrombus.

    Treatment of thrombosis


    Treatment should begin immediately after the detection of the disease. Depending on the stage of the disease and its severity, the doctor can recommend both out-patient treatment and hospital-based treatment.

    Occlusal thromboses in the early stages can be treated medically. First of all, it is necessary to prevent the transition of thrombosis to flotation. Patients are assigned compliance with bed rest. In this case, the legs should be raised by 10-15 degrees. The lower extremities are wound with elastic bandages. The patient should regularly bend and unbend the feet in order to prevent the stagnation of the blood and strengthen its outflow from the extremities. When pains in the legs decrease, dosed walking is recommended.

    Most often, thrombosis is treated with anticoagulants. These substances reduce the coagulability of blood, reducing the likelihood of blood clots. Mainly prescribed heparin and warfarin. If necessary, the doctor can prescribe fibrinolytics, thrombolytics and disaggregants: fibrinolysin, thrombolytin, nicotinic acid, butadione, rheopyrin, aspirin. In the process of treatment, coagulograms that control the blood clotting system are made.

    In especially severe cases, thrombolysis is prescribed, a procedure that facilitates the dissolution of blood clots. In this case, a thrombolytic agent is inserted into the blood clot with the help of a catheter. This method allows you to dissolve even large blood clots, but can cause bleeding. Therefore, thrombolysis is used extremely rarely.

    Medication is combined with diet. It is recommended to eat plenty of vegetables and fruits: the fiber contained in them, strengthens the vessels. It is also necessary to consume foods with a high content of vitamin E and essential fatty acids: seafood, fish oil, flaxseed oil. They contribute to the dilution of blood and prevent the formation of blood clots.

    At the same time, it is necessary to exclude from the diet salty and spicy food, which detains fluid in the body. Flotation thrombosis, as well as neglected occlusive thrombosis, require surgical intervention.

    The operation is performed in several ways:

    • remove the thrombus;
    • bandages the vein;
    • stitch the vein;
    • establish an arteriovenous shunt;
    • install a cava filter.

    Prevention measures


    To prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary to eliminate its causes:

    • to quit smoking;
    • to lead a healthy lifestyle;
    • eat right;
    • not wear tight pants, tight belts and corsets;
    • wear compression stockings;
    • treat diabetes and cardiovascular disease;
    • does not lift weights;
    • to limit the intake of hormonal contraceptives;
    • to abandon high heels;
    • regularly take a contrast shower;
    • doing physical exercises;
    • consumes red algae with an anticoagulant effect, vitamin C and magnesium, which dilute the blood.


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