• Ovarian inflammation in women: symptoms and treatment

    Inflammation of the ovaries in medical literature is called oophoritis.

    This disease, accompanied in most cases by the development of an infectious-inflammatory reaction from the ovarian tissue.

    The danger of this pathology is the possible development of infertility, when a woman can not become pregnant within a year or more. In addition, there may be other unpleasant consequences.

    Causes of ovarian inflammation

    The causes of ovarian inflammation can be divided into two main groups:

    1. 1) Infectious, which are associated with infection of the genital tract with
    2. microorganisms. 2) Autoimmune, in which the cells of the immune system damage ovarian tissue, including its follicular apparatus.
    Most often, oophoritis is associated with infectious causes. The main microorganisms that can cause the development of the inflammatory process in the ovaries are:

    1. 1) Pathogenic microorganisms that come from outside and are not representatives of the normal microflora of the human body
    2. 2) Conditionally pathogenic microorganisms that are always present on the skin and mucous membranes, but tothe development of the inflammatory process is predisposed only with a decrease in immunity.
    The following microorganisms cause oophoritis in a species-specific ratio:

    • streptococci
    • of staphylococcus
    • Escherichia coli
    • pseudomonas
    • proteas
    • herpes simplex virus
    • chlamydia
    • mycoplasmas
    • ureaplasms
    • Trichomonads
    • gonococci and others.
    There are certain predisposing factors that increase the likelihood of an inflammatory process in the ovaries. These factors include the following:

    • frequent change of sexual partners
    • taking medications that reduce the immunity of
    • irrational administration of antibiotics, especially when self-medicated
    • douching of the vagina that help wash away the beneficial microflora
    • the absence in the diet of lactic acid products
    • various intrauterine interventions( abortions, diagnostic curettage, installation of an intrauterine device).

    Symptoms of ovarian inflammation in women

    In women, acute and chronic oophoritis is given in the clinical course( remission and exacerbation).Symptoms of ovarian inflammation are as follows:

    • pains in the lower abdomen, which may have an irradiation( in the lower limb, perineum) or may not have
    • fever
    • weakness
    • spotting from the genital tract
    • presence of abnormal discharge with an unpleasant odor
    • painduring sexual intercourse, etc.
    The stage of remission of chronic inflammation of the ovaries has virtually no clinical manifestations. Therefore, a regular visit to the gynecologist is required to detect the first signs of the disease.

    Ovarian inflammation and pregnancy

    Pregnancy and ovarian inflammation are closely related. So, oophoritis predisposes to the development of infertility, that is, a woman for a year or more in the conduct of regular sexual life can not become pregnant.

    This occurs as a result of the following mechanisms:

    1. 1) Against the background of inflammation, there is a thickening of the ovary's white shell, which makes it difficult for the ovule to leave the follicle; therefore, the state of anovulation of
    2. develops. 2) In autoimmune oophoritis, direct damage to the follicle is observed by the immune cells
    3. 3)the ovarian process involves the uterine tube, which leads to the development of its obstruction( tubal peritoneal infertility).
    Thus, inflammation of the ovaries leads to the development of conditions that complicate the onset of pregnancy. However, even if a woman becomes pregnant, this does not completely solve all the problems, since certain complications of pregnancy may develop. They are associated with a deficiency of progesterone, which is normally produced by the yellow body of the ovary up to 16 weeks.

    This hormone controls the following processes:

    1. 1) Invasion of trophoblast villi on which the correct functioning of the placenta depends
    2. 2) Reduce the tone of the myometrium
    3. 3) Increases body temperature due to influence on the thermoregulatory center of the brain
    4. 4) Promotes fluid retention in the body thatis necessary to increase the volume of circulating plasma.
    Therefore, against the background of progesterone deficiency, the development of complications such as

    1. is possible 1) The threat of abortion( threatening miscarriage or threatening premature births, the difference between them only during pregnancy)
    2. 2) Placental insufficiency
    3. 3) Fetal development delay
    4. 4) Lack ofoxygen for the fetus
    5. 5) Hypovolemia is a reduced volume of circulating plasma.

    Treatment of ovarian inflammation

    Treatment of ovarian inflammation depends on the nature of the course of the disease.

    In acute oophoritis, as well as with exacerbation of chronic oophoritis, complex therapy is prescribed, which consists of the following components:

    • antibiotics taking into account the isolated microorganisms
    • anti-inflammatory drugs
    • vitamins
    • immunostimulating agents.
    In chronic inflammation of the ovaries in the remission phase, the following therapies are indicated:

    • immunomodulation, depending on the existing disorders in the
    • immune system, hormonal therapy to increase the sensitivity of the ovarian unit
    • vitamins.
    In diagnosed autoimmune oophoritis, the main place in the treatment is given to the appointment of immunosuppressants. They reduce the severity of the inflammatory reaction and its negative consequences.

    With the development of purulent inflammation, it is recommended to perform surgical treatment. It consists in the opening of a purulent focus and its drainage. In the subsequent local injection of antiseptics and antibiotics into the drainage.


    Preventive measures aimed at preventing the development of ovarian inflammation are as follows:

    1. 1) Regular observation by a gynecologist, which will help to detect the disease at the preclinical stage, and prevent the development of complications of the oophoritis
    2. 2) Conducting regular sexual activity with one sexual partner
    3. 3) In case of accidental sexual intercourse, it is recommended to use a condom without fail( this will help protect against sexually transmitted infections)
    4. 4) Cobeying the rules of intimate hygiene
    5. 5) Daily consumption of lactic acid foods that contain useful lactobacilli, which increase local and general immunity.

    Ovarian inflammation complications

    Ovarian inflammations are a serious pathological process that can be accompanied by the development of certain complications. Therefore, a timely appeal to the gynecologist, which deals with the diagnosis and treatment of oophoritis, is required.

    The main complications that can develop are:

    1. 1) Anovulatory infertility in which the egg does not ripen and / or does not leave the follicle into the abdominal cavity of
    2. 2) Piovar - development of purulent process in the ovary with the formation of the
    3. delimiter capsule 3) Simultaneous involvement of the fallopian tube in the inflammatory process( adnexitis develops, or adnexitis developssalpingo-oophoritis)
    4. 4) Abscess of the Douglas space
    5. 5) Pelvic thrombophlebitis, i.e., formation of a thrombus and development of an inflammatory process from the vein of the small pelvis
    6. 6) Parametritis - inflammation of the ovary cellAtkins
    7. 7) Syndrome of exhausted ovaries, which is characterized by depletion of the follicular apparatus at the age of 35 years and younger.
    In conclusion, it should be noted that oophoritis can have both an infectious-dependent origin and an autoimmune one. Clarification of the cause of the development of this pathological process is necessary for choosing the most rational treatment tactics.

    That is why during the diagnosis the doctor is based not only on the symptoms of the disease, but also on the basis of additional research methods. Only after this, appropriate conservative treatment is prescribed.

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