Manifestations and diagnosis of kidney cancer
Mar 28, 2018
Renal cancer is a pathology in which an organ is affected by tumor cells. This is mainly the case at the age of 55 to 60 years. Among the known malignant neoplasms this disease occupies the tenth place according to the frequency of development. It is very important that the timely diagnosis of kidney cancer.
Etiological factors of tumor formation
Doctors do not yet know the exact causes of the disease development. There are a large number of factors that increase the risk of malignant neoplasm formation. In general, the disease is detected in people after forty years. In addition, the risk factors should include:
- Smoking - people who smoke have a risk of developing kidney cancer twice as much.
- In men, the risk of developing pathology is much higher.
- Obesity - extra pounds severely disrupt the hormonal balance and provoke the development of pathology.
- Prolonged use of specific medications - especially with regard to the uncontrolled use of medicines without a doctor's prescription.
- Severe kidney damage or prolonged exposure to dialysis with complete organ failure.
- The defeat of genetic pathologies.
- Weighed down a family history of kidney cancer.
- Influence of chemicals - for example, gasoline, asbestos, cadmium, organic solvents and various herbicides.
- High blood pressure.
- Black color of the skin for unknown reasons.
The influence of these factors does not mean that oncology will necessarily develop in the kidney.
Symptomatic evidence of the progression of the cancer
In the first stages of the development of the disease, it proceeds without the manifestation of symptoms, so it is diagnosed accidentally during an ultrasound or computer examination related to the development of other diseases. In this regard, the main signs of cancer include: blood in the urine, palpable tumor and pain in the lumbar region. But at the present time they are very rare.
The most common symptom when developing cancer of the left kidney or right kidney is the presence of blood in the urine, which is present periodically or permanently, and with abundant bleeding in the urine there are blood clots. When a tumor begins to crush or germinate into nearby tissues, or with the development of renal colic, low back pain and abdominal pain develop. Acute pain is triggered by acute hemorrhage in the tumor or tumor rupture with the formation of a hematoma in the space behind the peritoneum. The third sign of development of oncologists is a palpable tumor, which is found in every sixth patient at the time of diagnosis.
This is important! In later stages of the disease, the tumor is probed already through the anterior wall of the peritoneum, the veins of the abdomen begin to increase under the skin, edema in the legs is formed, and the veins in the spermatic cord widen in the males, the veins are blocked in the legs, there is no appetite and the body weight decreases sharply.
Implementation of diagnostic measures for
When found in blood urine, an urgent consultation of a urologist is required, which appoints a suitable examination in this situation, namely ultrasound diagnosis of the genitourinary system, blood and urine tests. Ultrasound is considered the main method of diagnosis in macrohematuria. Often oncology of the kidney is detected precisely due to ultrasound, performed due to the development of another disease.
Excretory urography is an X-ray examination method with the introduction of a contrast medium into the body. It is used to assess the quality of kidney function and the possible presence of a tumor in them. After the introduction of computer and magnetic resonance imaging into medicine, the value of the described method began to decrease noticeably, because new methods help to diagnose the tumor, regardless of its size, to reveal the extent of the lesion and the quality of the function of both a healthy and damaged kidney.
This is important! A prerequisite for conducting a diagnosis for a patient suspected of having a kidney tumor is the radiography of the chest, lungs, and pelvic bones.
Differential diagnosis is performed with inflammatory lesions, benign tumors, with cysts, primary malignant tumors.
Organization and conduct of effective treatment of
pathology Most often the cancer of the right kidney or left kidney is treated through an operative intervention, realized in any possible case. The operation involves removing the organ, the nearby fatty tissue and ureter. At the present time, various organ-saving operations have been successfully developed and are being used in cancerous organ damage. Such methods can be organized only at the first stages of the development of the disease in the presence of contraindications to the removal of the kidney.
Such surgical interventions suggest the elimination of only some part of the kidney and, according to the results of the studies, the organ-preserving operations are practically the same as the radical removal. The main disadvantage of refusal of a nephrectomy is a high risk of subsequent development of local relapses.
After the organization of nephrectomy in patients in the first stages, the survival rate for five years is 75%.
Chemotherapy or drug treatment for oncology in the kidney is considered neph / effective. Radiation therapy is also not used as a stand-alone method. It is implemented to prevent progression, reduce pain intensity, prevent and recover from pathological fractures.Like the article? Share with friends and acquaintances: