First aid for burns
Mar 25, 2018
Thermal burn arises from exposure to the skin of boiling water, flame, melted fat, hot metal. To reduce the pain and prevent swelling of the tissues, you must immediately burned your arm, put your foot under a stream of cold water and hold to the abatement of pain.
Then, with a first degree burn( when the skin only blushed), lubricate the affected area with alcohol or cologne. You can not apply a bandage. It is enough several times a day to treat the burned skin with special aerosols such as "Levian", "Vi-nizol", "Oxycyclizol", "Panthenol", which are designed to treat superficial burns and are sold in pharmacies without a prescription.
With a second degree burn( when bubbles formed, and some of them burst and the integrity of the epidermal cover - the top layer of the skin was broken), it is not necessary to treat the burn area with alcohol, as this will cause severe pain and burning. Bubbles should not be pierced at all: they protect the burn surface from infection. On the burn area, apply a sterile bandage( sterile bandage or iron-ironed cloth).
Do not burn the burnt skin, as is often done, grease, brilliant green( green), a strong solution of potassium permanganate. It will not bring relief, and it will be difficult for the doctor to determine the degree of tissue damage.
When burned by flames, a person in burning clothes usually rushes, fanning the flame. Immediately stop it, flush the inflamed clothes, or extinguish, pouring water from a bucket, a pelvis, best of all from a hose, and in winter throwing snow.
If there is no water at hand, throw a blanket over the affected person, a thick cloth. But keep in mind: high temperature affects the skin the more deadly, the longer and denser is pressed against her smoldering clothes. A person in burning clothes can not be wrapped around his head in order to avoid damage to the respiratory tract and poisoning with toxic products of combustion.
After extinguishing the flame, quickly remove the clothing from the victim by cutting it. Affected areas of the body for 15-20 minutes, pour a stream of cold water.
For extensive lesions, cover the victim with ironed towels, sheets, tablecloth. Give him 1-2 tablets of analgin or amidopyrine. Call an ambulance or take it to a medical facility.
Chemical burn causes concentrated acids, alkalis, salts of some heavy metals to get on the skin. The chemical must be removed as soon as possible! First of all, remove from the victim clothing, which hit the chemicals. Try to do it so that you do not get burn yourself. Then wash the affected surface of the body under a plentiful tap of water from a tap, shower, hose for 20-30 minutes. Do not use a tampon moistened with water, since in this case any chemical substance is rubbed into the skin and penetrates into its deep layers.
If the burn is caused by alkali, wash the affected skin areas with a solution of citric or boric acid( half a teaspoon per glass of water) or table vinegar, half diluted with water.
Body parts burned with acid, except for hydrofluoric acid, rinse with alkaline solution: soapy water or baking soda solution( one teaspoon of soda to a glass of water).When burned with hydrofluoric acid, which enters, in particular, into the composition of the brake fluid, to remove the fluoride ions contained in it, it is necessary to wash the skin for a very long time, 2-3 hours, under a stream of water, since fluorine penetrates deeply into it.
When the burn is caused by quicklime, wash it off with water! The interaction of lime and water generates heat, which can exacerbate the thermal injury. First, carefully remove lime from the surface of the body with a piece of clean cloth, and then rinse the skin with running water or treat it with any vegetable oil.
Apply a dry sterile bandage to the burn area.
In all cases, the chemical burns after delivery of first aid to the victim must be delivered to a medical institution.
Often eye burns with chemical dyes - aniline paint, ink pencil lead, ink.
The dye that enters the eye should be immediately removed with a damp cotton or gauze swab, and then rinse abundantly with boric acid( half a teaspoon per glass of water), a slightly pink solution of manganese-potassium hydroxide or a 3% solution of tannin. One of these solutions is poured into a special vessel( it can be bought at a pharmacy) or in a cleanly washed teapot to brew tea. Spreading the eyelids of the victim, irrigate the eye over the sink, pouring out the solution from the unds or teapot. If there are no medicinal solutions at home, you can rinse your eyes under the tap water or a cooled liquid tea from the kettle. After washing it is necessary to contact the oculist who will decide on further treatment.
Acid, alkali in the eye can also cause severe burns to the cornea. To avoid this, you must first thoroughly wash your eyes under running water for 10 minutes. And then, if any acid( nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric, oxalic, carbolic) gets into the eyes, rinse them with a weak solution of baking soda - half a teaspoon into a glass of water. If you get into the eyes of alkali( caustic soda, ammonia, caustic soda, carbide, lime), gently treat the eye with a moistened tampon moistened with a 2% solution of boric acid.