• Conditions for the correct development of the child

    The external environment has a direct effect on the vital activity of any, primarily growing, organism. The state of the child's health largely depends on the microclimate of the room, where he is constantly located, the cleanliness and freshness of the air, the quality of clothing that comes in contact with his skin, the furniture he uses, etc.

    We will tell in more detail about the package of measures that will allowachieve good results in the development and upbringing of the baby.

    The room. Even before the birth of a child, it is necessary to allocate and equip a children's room or a corner in the most illuminated part of the room, freeing it from excess items. This will make it easier to clean and maintain cleanliness.

    The temperature of the room in a room for a newborn child must be at least 22 ° C.For this, in the cold season, it is sometimes necessary to install additional heaters. However, it is not recommended to raise the temperature of the air above 23-24 ° C, as this can lead to overheating of the child and a decrease in his resistance to catarrhal diseases. For older children, the air temperature should be lower: toddlers up to a year - within 20-22 ° C, and for children over the year, given their greater physical activity, 18-19 ° C.

    Regardless of the time of the year, it is necessary to open wide access to fresh air into the room where the child is. For this, the room should be ventilated several times a day. In the cold season, a fan or a window is opened for ventilation( first in the absence of the child, and then in the presence of it).In summer they keep the windows open all day, and if possible at night.

    In the room where the child is placed, it is impossible to wash and dry diapers and underwear, it is strictly forbidden to smoke. Floor, windows, doors and furniture must be wet-cleaned daily.

    Children's furniture, clothes, shoes. For a child you need a cot with side mesh or lattice walls. It must have a hard bottom. The mattress is also recommended hard - from horsehair, sea grass, hay. Do not use mattresses from fluff or foam, as this can lead to overheating of the child, and in some cases - to allergies. You can not sleep on a cot or in a stroller.

    The child does not put a pillow for up to one year, so as not to cause his curvature of the spine because of the wrong posture in the crib. Older children can make a small flat cushion of sea grass or a bird feather. In the crib of the child during wakefulness it is recommended to invest a thick plywood sheet, covered with a bikini blanket and oilcloth. It is very convenient for children's playpen, where the child can more actively move and play.

    Children over the age need special furniture: a chair for feeding, a children's table, highchair, a locker for toys. All children's furniture should be light, comfortable, well-hygienic. As the child grows, it is necessary to purchase large-sized furniture or to adapt the existing one appropriately.

    You can not always leave your baby in a crib or an arena. Beginning at 7 months of age, it should be lowered to the floor, creating the conditions for the development of movements. For this purpose, a part of the room can be enclosed with a barrier of 40-45 cm in height, flooring with a blanket and easily washable oilcloth. In such an impromptu manege you can put a wheelchair, a smooth log or a sheathed log, a big ball. All this stimulates active movements of the child - crawling, getting up, overstepping. For older children( from 10-11 months) it is recommended to make a small slide with a ladder and a slope, a bench, a Swedish ladder.

    Clothing for children of early age is desirable to sew from hygroscopic, well-washable materials( cotton, linen, wool), and for coats, jackets, overalls, materials with an admixture of synthetic fibers are allowed. It should correspond to the age of the child, the season, the temperature of the air, to protect from both cooling and overheating, to be comfortable, free cut, not to restrict the movements of the child. It is very important that the baby's clothes are maximally adapted so that he can use it himself.

    Babies( cotton or knitted and flannel), flannel blouses with long sleeves, sliders( calico, flannel, knitted), pantyhose are recommended for infants. At an older age( after a year) - underwear made of cotton fabric and knitwear( panties, shirts, T-shirts), dresses or shirts made of chintz, flannels, knitwear, tights( in warm room and in summer - socks), shorts made of cotton or woolentissue. In a cool room baby can be dressed in a woolen dress or trousers, wool blouse.

    To ensure the child freedom of movement in the cold season, for walking is recommended a jumpsuit with a wool blouse and trousers. For walking and sleeping outdoors for a child of the first year of life, it is very convenient to use a sleeping bag that does not constrain breathing and allows the baby to take a comfortable position.

    The head of the child, even the youngest in the room, should be kept uncovered. In the street in the summer you can wear a light cap( in the wind or stay in the sun), the older children - panama or cap with a visor. In the cold season we advise you to put on a cotton scarf and a woolen cap, and in frosty weather - a fur hat.

    Shoes for the child must be selected according to the size. It should not be too wide or narrow, as this can lead to deformations of the foot. Already from 8-9 months, when the child begins to get up and cross the barrier, he should wear leather shoes with a hard back and a small heel( 0.5-1 cm), rather than soft booties or one socks, as this contributes to the development of flat feet. Older children, who have well mastered walking, are approached with leather shoes or sandals, which must also have a hard back and heels up to 1 cm.

    To keep the child's legs from overheating, he should not wear warm slippers and boots, or rubber boots. Rubber boots can only be used for walking in wet weather. In this case, you must always wear woolen socks. In summer, in warm weather, it is very useful for children to walk barefoot( on well-cleared soil, sand or grass).This is a good hardening agent and one of the methods of flatfoot prevention.

    The list of recommended clothes and footwear for the child in accordance with the season of the year and at different temperatures of air indoors and outdoors is given in the following articles.

    Clothes and shoes for the child is desirable to choose a beautiful, bright colors. This gives him new visual impressions, raises the emotional tone, is one of the moments of aesthetic education.

    Baby clothes, clothes and shoes should be kept away from adult clothing. Washing baby clothes and clothes also separately, without using washing powders, as this can cause allergic reactions. Linens of children of the first year of life are washed only with baby soap, necessarily subjected to boiling. Dried underwear( dry better in fresh air) is ironed with a hot iron. It is very important to carefully iron the diapers and ringlets for the baby in the first weeks of his life, since the skin is very tender and easily susceptible to pathogens. Boiling and ironing disinfect diapers reliably.

    Childcare items. The child of the first months of life needs especially careful care. At this age, any violation of the environment can lead to serious illness.

    Baby care items and preparations should be prepared well in advance of birth. First of all, care should be taken to ensure that the newborn baby is provided with a sufficient number of diapers, raspashonok and other linen so that they can be freely changed as needed. New linen should be boiled in advance, ironed with a hot iron and stored in a special closet or bedside table.

    To care for the baby's skin and mucous membranes, you should have cotton wool, gauze napkins or bandages that should be new, not used, at first it is desirable to buy gauze, cotton and bandages in sterile packaging. Vata and bandages should be stored in clean( boiled) glass jars with lids. Treatment of the skin of the child for the prevention of diaper rash is made with a baby cream or sterile vegetable oil( olive, sunflower, corn), which must be boiled and stored in a special bubble.

    For bathing a child you need a baby bath, a water thermometer, a soft sponge or a mitten made from baize, a baby soap, a jug for pouring the baby at the end of the bath. The child of the first months of life should be placed on a special cloth hammock, stretched on a wire base, with which the child is given a semi-lying position in the bath.

    Wash the child after each urination and emptying the bowel, using a small basin and a jug for this. If there is hot water supply, you can wash the child under the tap, carefully adjusting the water temperature.

    The nails on the hands and feet are cut with specially selected scissors with rounded ends, combed with a separate comb. No one should use these objects.

    It is very important to observe special cleanliness when storing nipples and pacifiers. They should be placed in boiled glass jars with well-closed lids. These banks should be boiled at least 2 times a week. Nipples are boiled after each use.

    It is necessary to have in stock several sterile graduated bottles( purchased at the pharmacy) - for water, expressed breast milk, juices, etc. Bottles, like nipples( nudies), after each use should be thoroughly washed and boiled.

    Care items such as an enema bottle, a gas outlet tube, an eye dropper, a nose pipette should also be stored in separate closed clean glass jars.

    When the child is 6 months old, parents should persistently teach the baby to use the pot. However, you can not force the child to sit on the pot, as this causes a negative reaction and delays the development of the necessary skill. If the child can sit on his own, it is very convenient to use a special chair for planting.

    By the beginning of the second year of life, you should buy a baby toothbrush and teach him to brush his teeth first without a toothpaste, and later with a special baby toothpaste. The kid needs to allocate a special cup for rinsing the mouth after eating.

    Toys. The correct selection of toys is of great importance for the neuropsychological development of the child. The toy becomes the first and basic means by which the kid learns the environment, gets acquainted with the color, shape, volume and other properties of various objects, learns to manipulate them. Toys in many ways contribute to the development of active movements of the child, the development of his speech, thinking. They should be selected in accordance with the age and individual characteristics of the child, his tastes, inclinations.

    In the course of the first weeks of life, the child forms the basis of the binocular( two eyes) vision, which allows you to see objects in space. By the end of the first month of life, he can already fix for a while large eyes with large objects, and subsequently follow the look behind moving large and bright objects. At the same time, he begins to distinguish between sounds and listen to them.

    Suspension toys are recommended to use from the first days of a child's life. In a crib at about 70 cm above the baby's chest, you should hang a bright large toy for viewing. The same large and bright toys( balls, large pyramids, dolls, bears, etc.) should be placed in different places of the room near the baby crib( put on a shelf, attach to the wall).Periodically, suspension toys are changed using other, different shapes, colors. When communicating with the baby, he should show bright and sounding toys( a rattle, a tambourine, a bell).

    When the child is 2-2.5 months old, the toys are hung lower, at the height of the child's outstretched arm. In this case, large toys should be replaced with smaller ones, convenient for grasping. Such a tactic aims to develop in the child the ability to feel and pick up various objects. However, we must leave large toys for review.

    A child aged 5-6 months in a crib or an arena should hang a few different in shape, color and texture of toys( balls, bells, ribbons), which are strengthened on one common cord so that the baby pulling to himself one captured object,caused the movement of others. This movement and sound of other toys switches the child's attention to them and makes him want to grab a new toy. Simultaneously with the child suspended in the arena or crib, other toys are placed( mostly new ones).They stimulate the child to turn, creep.

    After 6 months, the baby begins to actively manipulate a wide variety of toys. It is necessary to offer him toys for inserting and taking out( nesting dolls, bowls), for stringing( pyramid), pushing( carts, cars), skating( balls, balls).So-called subject-shaped toys are needed - dolls, bears, rabbits, etc.

    The use of various boxes( round, square, triangular, oblong) with lids, cubes of different types helps the development of finger motility, which is very important for the overall development of the child and especially speech.size and color, rings of different sizes and thicknesses. Recommended benefits such as "Wonderful Pouch", "Magic Flashlight", which are embedded in various smaller toys. This encourages the child to get toys from the bag or flashlight and consider them.

    Simultaneously with the toys on the walls of the room should hang 2-3 paintings, a print with the image of large toys, bright fruits or any objects understandable to the child, to develop the orientation in the surrounding and promote the development of speech.

    A child older than( after a year) needs toys to determine the shape of the object( ball, cube, pyramid, etc.), the color of the object, its size. He must learn how to choose them according to color, shape, size, etc.

    The plot toys are of great interest for the child: dolls, cars, toy vegetables, fruits, as well as natural material( cones, acorns, leaves, flowers).Children are very eager to play toy animals, birds, houses, furniture, etc. To develop the speech of the baby, you should use various children's books, pictures, mock-ups, filmstrips.