• Intestinal flu: symptoms in adults, treatment and prevention

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    One of the representatives of acute intestinal viral diseases is - intestinal flu, often called gastric flu, viral gastroenteritis or simply - RI( rotavirus infection).

    The disease is caused by various types of parasites, viruses and bacteria.

    The main pathogens are viruses belonging to the order of rotaviruses from the family Reoviridae.

    Pathogen and development mechanism of

    Intestinal flu viruses( shell virus), spherical, the core of the virion( a virus particle located outside the cell), is covered with a three-layer protein coat, which provides the virus with stability in the acidic gastric environment and in alkaline reactions of the duodenum.

    A special structure of rotavirus genomes consisting of eleven, nonrepeating, rare RNA fragments, provides them with high phenotypic variability, the formation of new antigenic viruses of the same type, active circulation and dissemination.

    When introduced into the body, the viruses enter the digestive tract, are activated by activating proteins, and the process of reproduction begins in the cells of the intestinal epithelium covering the villi of the upper part of the small or 12 duodenum.
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    As a result of infection, after a little less than a day( 18-20 hours), the infected cells are destroyed and the latter slides into the intestinal lumen. There are micromorphometric changes - naked villi swell and change shape, in the epithelium of the intestinal mucosa increases the depth of intestinal crypts.

    Accumulated, discarded, infected cells descend into the lower gastrointestinal tract along with the remaining food, and come out with feces. The causative agent is very lively, is not afraid of low temperatures and can withstand high temperatures up to 70 degrees.

    Source of infection

    The source of the disease is a sick child or adult, as well as a carrier of infection. The infection is transmitted:

    • by contact;
    • water - when bathing a child or using "raw" water;
    • through dirty hands;
    • toys;
    • with the intake of infected foods, especially dairy products.
    Very dangerous rotavirus, for young children - from the time of termination of breastfeeding to three years of age, when not yet formed its own immunity, and for the elderly, whose immune system is already weakened enough.

    Pathogenesis of

    At the heart of the pathogenesis of intestinal flu lies:

    1. 1) Enzymatic disaccharide and lactase deficiency caused by loss of epithelial cells of the cover epithelium, replacing them with degenerate defective cells. This process leads to disruption of the formation of the digestive enzyme, responsible for the process of carbohydrate cleavage, and plays a dominant role in the mechanism of diarrhea development.
    2. 2) Water-electrolyte imbalance, which results in a process that disrupts absorption, or increases the secretion of electrolytes and water. Uncontrolled process leads to dehydration.
    Also read the symptoms and treatment of intestinal infections.

    Symptoms of intestinal flu in adults

    The latency period for intestinal flu in adults and children varies from twelve hours to 24 hours. Then there are the characteristic symptoms that are expressed:

    • signs of toxicosis;
    • by high temperature;
    • indifference to food and drink;
    • frequent, liquid, foamy emptying.
    In many small patients, the disease proceeds violently, in acute form up to 4 days. Improvement of the condition may be temporary. Deterioration may manifest as exacerbations of the gastrointestinal tract.

    • with prolonged diarrhea and vomiting 5 to 8 times during the day;
    • with acute abdominal pain;
    • manifestation of hematologic syndrome;
    • signs of hepatomegaly;
    • fever and high fever( up to 38 degrees);
    • possible manifestations of catarrhal symptoms;
    • depressed state and other manifestations of damage to the central nervous system.
    The most dangerous manifestation of RI are signs of water-electrolyte imbalance, expressed by dehydration of the body. In the youngest patients, dehydration occurs very rapidly with the development of malicitifiable excitosis.

    The severity of the intestinal flu is determined by the degree of dehydration. If the water-electrolyte therapy is not timely or lacks, a lethal outcome is possible.

    Treatment of intestinal flu

    In the case of intestinal influenza in adults, the success of treatment is based on an integrated approach, where the primary task is to combat dehydration( dehydration).There is no specific treatment for intestinal flu, therefore, therapy is aimed at reducing intoxication and normalization of water-salt metabolism, which is disturbed by diarrhea and vomiting.

    For the elimination of symptoms of intestinal infections, adults are prescribed:

    1. 1) Rehydration therapy - the best medicine is Regidron, you need to drink it constantly, every 30 minutes;
    2. 2) Enterosorbent preparations - Smecta or Polysorb;
    3. 3) With severe diarrhea appoint - Furazolidone or Enterofuril;
    4. 4) Digestive enzymes - Creon or Pancreatin.
    5. 5) After the disappearance of the symptoms prescribe probiotics to restore the intestinal microflora - Lineks, Bifiform, Hilak forte.
    Children with frequent vomiting and diarrhea are shown hospitalization. Manifestation of intestinal flu in children with a loss of fluid up to 10-15% requires infusion therapy aimed at intravenous administration of drugs, to restore water-electrolyte balance and normalization of metabolic processes - Regidron, Oralit, Electrolit, colloidal solutions, and other analogies.

    How to treat intestinal flu? Reduce the infusion therapy by almost 80% can be due to proper evaporation, in two stages.

    1. 1) Soldering in the first stage is aimed at eliminating dehydration. The intake of the necessary liquid depends on its loss within 4x6 hours from the beginning of treatment. Varies from 50 to 100 ml. Kg.
    2. 2) In the second stage of evaporation, the required volume of the drug should be from 80 to 100 ml.kg per day.
    The main rule on which the effectiveness of treatment depends, is the correct technique of evaporation. In the first stage, the liquid of the drug, designed for evaporation, is injected every 10 -15 minutes during each hour. If vomiting occurs, the evaporation is interrupted for about ten minutes, then resumed.

    Olga Papsueva tells how she treated intestinal flu at home:

    The earlier the soldering is started, the more effective the result. If, however, fluid loss and vomiting continue, the urine output decreases, this is the correct indicator for intravenous administration of the drug in hospitalization.

    If the temperature rises to 38 degrees, it should not be knocked down, since the infectious virus, dying at low temperatures, dies at high temperatures. At critical indications, it is necessary to wipe the child with a cool aqueous solution with vinegar or vodka. Or with the help of Nurofen or Paracetamol.

    The obligatory component of treatment is a diet, taking into account the syndrome of gastrointestinal disorders. Adults should observe a sparing diet. To a child under one year, breastfeeding should be prolonged. Children who have crossed the two-year boundary - exclude sour-milk products and carbohydrates. If the child wants to eat, you can offer broth from chicken, or boiled rice porridge on the water. To exclude vomiting, feeding should be fractional.

    Timely treatment of intestinal flu, excludes various complications, spread and fatal consequences.

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