• Poisonous mushrooms

    mushrooms are rather strange organisms, occupying an intermediate position between plant and animal kingdoms. French botanist of the XVII century. Veyyan suggested that mushrooms are deliberately created by the devil to disturb the harmony of nature. Indeed, mushrooms store many mysteries. One of the mysteries concerns their food properties: among the mushrooms are many tasty and nutritious species, but there are also inedible, and some represent a serious danger to human life, because they are toxic. Due to this circumstance, in some countries mushroom dishes are not included in the national cuisine: for a long time people were trembling, fear and horror stories about poisoning caused after the use of forest gifts. Legends and legends were passed on from generation to generation, and the word "mushroom" in the minds of some people was associated with the word "death."

    In the annals of history, the list of victims of fungal poisonings is far from complete. It is known that poisonous mushrooms caused the death of the wife and children of the great Greek playwright Euripides. The victim of his passion to try unknown and little-known fungi was Apokii Severin( 1st century AD), the ruthless leader of the bodyguards of the Roman emperor Nero. Famous for his cruelty and depravity, Nero, according to legend, managed to climb the Roman throne only after the murder of his stepfather Claudius, who at the time of the feast served a dish with poisoned mushrooms. Behind a plentiful mushroom table, Pope Clement VII found his end, the equally fateful fate befell the French King Charles VI.

    Far from rare were cases of poisoning with mushrooms in Russia, but our ancestors, being hereditary mushroom pickers, were very fond of "forest beef" and knew how to distinguish edible mushrooms from their poisonous brethren. Foreigners living in Russia admired the taste of Russian mushrooms and said that they were better than anywhere else. The Englishman Samuel Collins, who was staying at the court of Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich, noted that Russians have few lethal mushrooms, and edible are more diverse and better than anywhere else.

    The collection of mushrooms in our country today is considered to be useful and enjoyable leisure of many thousands of people of all ages and professions. In addition, it should be noted that the number of poisonous fungi is much less than useful.

    At present, mycologists know about 3000 species of fungi, of which only 50 can be considered poisonous. Deadly poisoning can be caused by the use of such fungi as pallid grebe, spring, panther and red fly agarics, some fiber, spiderwebs, govorushki, ryadovki and entolomy. They are very dangerous, since they retain their toxic properties after soaking, boiling, drying, pickling, marinating and other processing methods. To protect yourself from poisoning by mushrooms, you must learn how to recognize them unerringly, first of all by external signs. Therefore, the fungi must first be studied theoretically, so as not to be mistaken in practice.

    To avoid poisoning, you must follow the golden rule of the mushroom picker: do not put an unfamiliar mushroom in a basket or basket. Even the smallest poisonous fungus, later processed with edible fungi, can lead to the most unfortunate consequences.

    Pale toadstool( Amanita phalfoides)

    Pale toadstool( Fig.) Is a deadly poisonous mushroom from the group of lamellar, a kind of fly agaric.

    Fig. Pale toadstool( Amanita phalloides)

    Distinctive features. Hat from 7 to 11 cm in diameter, in color can be white, yellowish-brown-olive, light green. Form first bell-shaped, later flat-convex. In the middle it is usually darker, with a silky luster, in moist weather, mucous, sometimes with white flakes on the surface. The flesh of the fungus is white, thin, with a very mild fungal odor( sometimes quite without it) and a sweetish taste. Plates are white, loose and frequent. Spore powder white.

    The foot is flat, at the base tuber-shaped, thickened, white, sometimes with a yellow tinge, can reach up to 12 cm in length and 15-20 mm in diameter. Approximately in the middle of the leg there is a foil ring - white, striped. The base is surrounded by a white cup-shaped vagina - volva.

    Places of growth. Pale toadstool occurs in summer and autumn( from June to frosts) in broad-leaved forests - birch forests, oak forests, somewhat less often in coniferous plantations. Sometimes it grows alone, but more often in groups, is in abundance in the southern band of the forest zone.

    It should be remembered: unlike the poisonous pale toadstool, there is no thickening at the base of the russula's foot, and there is no foil ring in the middle of the leg. If a pale toadstool falls into the syringe when pickling in a container, it stands out among them with pure white, sticky plates and a thin, thin flesh.

    White in color pale toadstool can be adopted for young champignons( common and field).In this case, one should look at the plates: they are always white in the poisonous fungus, whereas in the mushrooms the plates are light brown, pink or slightly blackish-brownish. Champignons have a shorter leg, and most importantly, there is no sack-shaped vagina at its base. Low-skilled mushroom pickers can confuse a pale toadstool with a mushroom called "white float".It is characterized by the presence of a striped-rimmed edge on the cap and the absence of a ring on the pedicle.

    There are cases when a pale toadstool was mistaken for edible ringed caps with a brown bonnet with a pink tinge and a silvery-white mealy coating;The plates adherent to the pedicle are white at first, and then clayey-yellow. On the leg there is a ring, but there is no volva.

    Young pale toadstool, which is sometimes called green fly agaric, can be confused with an edible green leaf, which has yellowish-green discs, a leg without a ring and a volva, white or light yellow powder, white spore powder.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Only one pale toadstool, caught in food, can cause the death of 3-4 adults. Toxic substances of pale toadstool belong to the group of polypeptides. This fungus contains several toxic compounds: alpha-amanitine, phalloidin, phalloin, etc. The fast-acting venom of phalloidin destroys liver and kidney cells. The fatal dose for humans is only 0.02-0.03 g. Amanitine is a poison that is no less toxic, but it is much slower. All these dangerous compounds in the process of cooking are not destroyed.

    The first signs of poisoning pale toadstool can be observed after 8-12 hours, but their manifestation is not always clear, and therefore can be misleading. The most complete and bright symptoms are noted in 20-40 hours after eating. To manifestations of intoxication include weakness, severe headache, nausea, vomiting, thirst, convulsions, sudden abdominal cramping and pain in the gastrointestinal tract. At a deeper stage of poisoning, there are disorders of vision and circulation, signs of jaundice, and loss of consciousness. Recovery is rare and occurs slowly, while mortality from toxicity with pallid grebe reaches 90%.

    The danger of poisoning a pale toadstool is that its poisons act slowly: toxins affect the liver, heart, circulatory system and brain. Toxins, absorbed into the blood, cause irreparable destruction in the body. The danger of slow response is that the consequences of toxicity, as a rule, almost can not be corrected, and all those measures that usually help with poisoning with other mushrooms are powerless before the pale toadstool.

    Poisoning pale toadstool is the heaviest. It is enough to swallow the fourth part of the cap of pale toadstool to cause a deadly poisoning. No kind of culinary processing detoxifies the poisons contained in this mushroom. The danger is that the toxins that damage the circulatory system, the liver, the heart and the brain, act slowly and imperceptibly for almost 2 days.

    Fallow false( Hebeloma crustuliniforme)

    Fallow false, or horseradish mushroom( Fig.), - a poisonous plate mushroom from the genus of gabeloma of the family spider veins.

    Fig. Loot false, or fucking mushroom

    Distinctive features. Hat 3-10 cm in diameter, smooth, yellowish brown, center darker, cushion-convex. The pulp is whitish, it tastes bitter, with the smell of horse radish or radish. The plates are yellowish-brownish, notched or accreted, with an uneven edge. In wet weather, droplets of liquid form, brown spots appear on the dry spot of dried droplets. Spore powder - yellowish-brown. Leg is whitish, light, slightly scaly, young mushrooms are solid, mature inside is hollow, 4-7 cm long, 10-15 mm thick, base slightly inflated.

    Places of growth. A widespread fungus that grows everywhere from August to September at the edge of the forest, near roads and parks.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. In the mushrooms of the spiderweb genus contains several poorly studied poisonous substances. Some cause breathing and asphyxia, and others - motor paralysis. It is very important to help in time at the first sign of poisoning: headache, dryness and burning in the mouth, chills, severe thirst, nausea and vomiting. It is necessary to immediately seek help from a specialist and call an ambulance.

    Fibrous Fiber( Inocybe fastigiata)

    Fibrous Fiber Fiber is a poisonous fungus of the genus Fibers. Of the 150 species that grow around the world in different types of forests, about 100 species of fiber are found in our country( Fig.).

    Fig. Fibrous Fiber Felt

    Distinctive features. The cap is conical or campanulate, with a sharply protruding tubercle, torn at the margin. In diameter it reaches 3-8 cm, sometimes squeezed scales and longitudinal radial cracks are noticeable. The color is yellowish-brownish or dark straw-yellow, in the center is darker, with a gray or ocher shade. The pulp is white, has an unpleasant odor. The plates are notched, almost free, narrow, at first light, later yellowish or brownish-olive. The leg is even, but sometimes curved, 4-10 cm long, 4-10 mm thick. At a young age the leg is light, then dark, brownish, powdery on top, flaky-scaly to the base. Spore powder brown-ocher.

    Places of growth. Fibers are found. Fibrous from July to September in the central regions of the European part of Russia, in the south of the Urals and in Siberia. It grows in forests of various types, it can live in grassy corners.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. This type of fungi is poisonous because it contains muscarin toxin, when it is used, the first signs of poisoning are manifested after 12 hours, and in full - after 2 hours. In most cases, such poisonings lead to recovery if first aid is provided in time. However, the use of a large number of fungi can lead to a fatal outcome.

    Earthen felted( Inocybe geophylla)

    Earthen earth freckle is a poisonous fungus of the genus Fibers. Features. Hat is 2-3 cm in diameter, at a young age conical and white, with ripening spreading, along the edge, cracking, silky-fibrous. There are numerous variations of this fungus with hats of different shades - from pure white to light violet, but more often the cap of earthen fiber is slightly pinkish, sometimes yellowish. Flesh white, almost free plates first white, and as the fungus grows brownish shades. The pedicle is cylindrical in shape, slightly thickened at the base, smooth-fibrous, 2 to 4 cm long and 2-5 mm thick, white, with a mealy appearance in the upper part. Spore powder yellowish-brownish. A distinctive feature is the same as that of all fiber-fibers - an unpleasant smell( Fig.).

    Fig. Felted earth freak

    Places of growth .There is an earthen fiber usually in the central regions of the European part of Russia, in the south of the Urals, in Siberia. It grows from July to August in coniferous and deciduous forests of different types, usually along the edges of roads.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Due to the presence of muscarin alkaloid in earthy fiber, this species belongs to poisonous fungi. In addition to the main symptoms observed with muscarinic poisoning, there is also abundant sweating and salivation, digestive disorders, visual impairment, hallucinations, attacks of lamentation and laughter. At the first signs of toxicity, you should seek help from a doctor. When poisoning with muscarin, atropine, physostigmine and some other drugs may be prescribed.

    Patuillard Felt( loso patouillardii)

    Patuillard Felon is a rare but deadly poisonous fungus. It is considered the most dangerous among the kind of fiber( Fig.).

    Fig. Foam for Patuillard

    Distinctive features. The hat of the young mushroom is whitish, then it becomes creamy, straw-yellow, and then acquires a reddish hue. In diameter it reaches 6-9 cm, in shape first campanulate, later spreading, with central tubercle, in the case of old fungi it crackes. Flesh white, then reddish, tastes unpleasant, with an alcohol smell. Platelets grown, in young specimens white, later gray-gray, pink, with old mushrooms brown with reddish spots. Leg at the base slightly inflated, one color with a cap, length reaches 7 cm, in thickness - 5-10 mm. Spore powder is ocher-brown.

    Places of growth .Fibers rarely occur, it lives in coniferous and deciduous( oak) forests, on chalky mountains and in parks. Appears at the end of May and grows until July in the same places where mushrooms, ringed oats and some other edible mushrooms are well.

    Muscarin is a toxic substance that occurs in the fly agarics and other fungi - the fiber, the fungi of the clitoris( Clitocybe) and the Satanic fungus. It should be noted that muscarin fiber contains up to 16% of fiber, while in some species of fly agaric it is only 0.28%.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Toxicity can be observed as early as 15-20 minutes after consuming mushrooms, causing a poisoning substance called muscarin. The main symptoms: dizziness and headache, narrowing of the pupils and visual impairment, a feeling of chills and cold, the urge to vomit, severe sweating and drooling. Consciousness of muscarinic poisoning is usually preserved, but there may be a slowdown in cardiac activity, dyspnea accompanied by asthma attacks. Although the lethal outcome is rare, however, failure to provide first aid can lead to blood circulation disorders and even death in 8-9 hours. If assistance is provided on time, then recovery occurs within 24 hours.

    Russula emetica Fr.

    The fungus grows singly or in small groups in coniferous or deciduous forests. Often it can be found near the sphagnum bogs. The first mushrooms begin to appear in July and occur until late autumn.

    The hat reaches 10 cm in diameter, at first it is convex, then spread out, but impressed in the middle. The edges of the hat are striped. The hat is most often purple-pink or pink-red, moist and sticky.

    The pulp of the mushroom is brittle, white in color, with a pleasant smell, but it tastes hotter-tart.

    The plates are white, attached to the stem or loose. The old fungi of the plate are yellowish or grayish in color.

    The mushroom foot is up to 8 cm in length and about 1.5 cm in thickness. Leg is flat, dense, white with pinkish patches.

    Spores almost spherical, spiny. In bulk, the spore powder is white( Fig.).

    Fig. Russula emetica Fr.

    It is believed that it is toxic because of the presence of muscarin, but some researchers consider it inedible or even edible with low taste qualities.

    Clitocybe cerussata

    Govorushka waxy, or grayish - the popular name of a poisonous fungus, no less dangerous than a fly agaric or pale toadstool. Refers to the genus of mushrooms Clitocybe( Klitozibe), containing more than 250 species. In our country grows about 60 species, most of which, although not very valuable, but quite edible. These include the following types of govorushkah: fragrant, funnel-shaped, smoky, mace, etc. Among the poisonous species include govorushka waxy, golorushka whitish and govorushka orange, better known as a false chanterelle.

    Govorushkami all mushrooms of this kind are called for the fact that they always grow in groups, as if specifically going together in order to conduct endless conversations. The value of the fungi of this family is that they contain a useful antibacterial agent called clotocibin, used to treat tuberculosis.

    Distinctive features. Govorushka waxy - in color the mushroom is all white, the hat is up to 10 cm in diameter, at first it is convex, but as it grows it becomes spread, sometimes with a wide hump-shaped hill in the center. On the cap, watery concentric circles are clearly visible. Its edges are fluffy, wavy, turned, sometimes torn. The flesh of the fungus is white, dense, the smell and taste are pleasant enough.

    Leg straight or slightly bent, slightly thickened to the base, 8 cm in length, 5-15 mm in thickness, cylindrical in shape, smooth, fluffy and dense. Descending on the foot of the plate frequent, kie, sometimes slightly gray, but usually white. Spore powder is also white( Fig.).

    Fig. Govorushka waxy, or grayish

    Places of growth. Occurs quite often, grows among grasses From July to September in coniferous and mixed forests, mainly on sandy soils.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!).Govorushku waxy easily confused with young specimens of edible goats. Therefore, when collecting funnel-shaped or fragrant govorushkas need to be very careful. The poisonous mushroom is different from the color-edged hats and plates: they are white in poison-causing specimens, and those that can be eaten are bodily.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Poisoning causes a toxic substance of muscarin. It should be remembered: this toxic substance is contained not only in the fly agaric, but also in some types of govorushkas - especially a lot of it in the dovetail waxy. Within 5-6 hours after the consumption of fungi, one can observe the main symptoms of poisoning: vomiting, diarrhea, profuse sweating and salivation, convulsions, delirium, loss of consciousness, hallucinations begin.

    White whitish( Clitocybe dealbata)

    The whitish goat is a mushroom, of which there is no unanimous opinion that in some sources it is referred to as conditionally edible, while in others it is referred to as poisonous.

    Distinctive features. The headgear is whitish dry, smooth, glossy, small in diameter - from 2 to 4 cm. The shape is funnel-shaped, in the center it is strongly impressed, sometimes flat with a small depression and with a wavy-sinuous margin. The color of the cap is whitish, sometimes with obscure grayish areas along the edge. The flesh is white and thin. The plates are narrow, frequent, whitish or grayish, grown young at the young age, then descending along it. Leg is even, slightly thickened at the base, 3-4 cm in height, 8-10 mm wide, of the same color with a hat, sometimes with a faint pinkish hue( Fig.).

    Fig. Goose whitish

    Places of growth. It grows from July to September, it occurs in the European part of Russia and Western Siberia, in the forest zone, in meadows, fields and pastures.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Goaty whitish - poorly understood species: in some sources it is referred to edible, and in others to poisonous fungi, but according to the latest studies in this form found muscarine - a toxic substance that causes vomiting, convulsions, dizziness, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract,diarrhea, abundant saliva and sweating.

    Lepiota( umbrella) brownish-red( Lepiota brunnroincarnata)

    Lepiota brownish-red is a deadly poisonous fungus.

    Distinctive features. A hat with a diameter of 3-5 cm, with a reddish-white background covered with black-brown scales. Flesh white, at the base of legs dark cherry. The color of the legs is pinkish-white, with a ring. A characteristic feature of the Lepiota brown-red is white plates and a specific smell of the fungus, similar to the aroma of orange syrup( Fig.).

    Fig. Lepiota brownish-red

    Places of growth. In recent years, this fungus is often found in the urban strip, growing on lawns and gardens.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Signs of poisoning begin to appear already after 2 hours after the consumption of the fungus and are expressed in a chill and general malaise. After a day, the temperature rises, indomitable vomiting begins, and blue spots appear on the body. If you do not help at the time, then the lethal outcome comes on the third day.

    Chanterelle false( Hygrophoropsis auranti), or orange chitter orange

    Chamomile is false, or orange chaff, - a fungus, whose nutritional and toxic properties are assessed ambiguously. Some for the unpleasant taste refer to it as inedible, others to slightly poisonous ones.

    Distinctive features. Chanterelle False has a round-funnel-shaped bonnet with an even edge, the color of the cap is very bright - from reddish-orange to copper-red. The plates are descending along the stalk, sinuous, bright red. Leg length is up to 10 cm, 10 mm thick, narrowed to the base. The flesh of the fruit body is firm, elastic, woody. Spore powder white( Fig.).

    Fig. The chanterelle is false, or the orange daffodil

    Places of growth. Distributed chanterelle is false everywhere, grows from July to October, next to real chanterelles in coniferous and deciduous forests. It is most often found by families, very rarely solitary.

    In addition, the flesh of the chanterelle is dense and elastic, while in the false one it is woody and stiff;the edge of the cap is edible - wavy-lobed, and the poisonous - even.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. If the chanterelle is false when ingestion enters the intestine( especially if mushrooms are not properly treated), nausea, dizziness, weakness, abdominal pain, convulsions, diarrhea, vomiting may occur. With the first aid comes recovery.

    False ordinary razor( Scleroderma citrinum)

    False ordinary rag, or scleroderma lemon - inedible fungus, which when consumed in large quantities is toxic and can lead to poisoning.

    Distinctive features. Fruit body round, ovoid or club-shaped, up to 6 cm in diameter. The cap is smooth or finely scaly, less often cracks or warty, dirty-yellow or brownish in color. The flesh of the young fungus on the cut is white, dense. Then it turns black, becomes violet-black with white veins. With age, acquires an olive-brown color with whitish veins, becomes powdery. It has a peculiar smell of raw potatoes( Fig.).

    Places of growth. Occurs in August-September, sometimes very abundant in the European part of Russia, in the Far East and the North Caucasus. It prefers to grow in deciduous( oak) and coniferous( pine) forests along roads, along fringes, on clay and loamy soil.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!).Lazhnojodizvik often confused with a flashing blackening and flushing lead-gray, which at a young age are considered edible. The lead-gray lead has a webbed, smooth or mealy shell and first white, and then a purple-brown flesh. For blackening, white, thin and paper-like shells are characteristic and soft, first white, and then olive, ocher or purple-brown flesh. In an inedible false-lid, the shell is solid, the flesh is dense, purple-black with white veins.

    In addition, a false-grease is sometimes taken for an edible( only at a young age) pearl raincoat. In order to recognize a common falcon, one should simply sniff it: the smell of raw potatoes is the main sign of a poisonous fungus.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Toxication leads to an unreasonable use of a false-loser( scleroderma lemon), which manifests itself primarily in the disturbance of the digestive system: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting. Often also there are headache and dizziness. The action of the poison, which has a local irritant effect, manifests itself after 15 minutes, at the latest after 1 hour.

    Unscrupulous mushroom pickers realize young false-losers( before maturing spores), giving them away for truffles. However, neither from the botanical, nor from the culinary side, fakes have nothing to do with these truffles.

    False reddish bricky-red( Hypholoma sublateritium( Fr.) Quel.)

    Falsely glazed brick-red - a fungus, which in our country is considered to be poisonous.

    Distinctive features. Hat in diameter 4-10 cm, convex, campanulate, then round, rather fleshy, brick-red, to the edge yellow or light reddish-brown, sometimes with delicate white flakes. The flesh is dense, at first white, then yellowish. The smell is not very pleasant, the taste is bitter. Plates are adherent, clean, yellowish, then smoky, with a violet-brown hue and at the end of the growth of the black-olive mushroom. Leg length 3-8 cm, thickness 5-15 mm, even, tapering to the base, yellowish in color, brownish brown below, old hollow in old fungi. Spore powder is violet-brown( Fig.).

    Fig. Lozhnoopenok brick red

    Places of growth. The falsely glazed brick-red occurs in large groups in deciduous forests from August to October. It grows on stumps and logs of hardwood trees and near them.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!).False brick-red fir is even experienced mushroom pickers with autumn or winter firearms. Therefore, when collecting mushrooms, you must pay attention to the color of the fruit body, the plate and spore powder.

    It should be remembered: false hats are made of brick red in color, without scales, and edible autumn hats of soft tones: light brown, with thin, small brownish scales;winter hats are made of honey-yellow or cream hats.

    The plates of the false ones are yellow, the old ones are greenish or olive-black, while in the edible they are yellowish-white or cream. The false smell of unpleasant and earthy smell, edible - a pleasant mushroom flavor.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. False honey agarics are often the cause of poisoning. They are less poisonous than pale toadstool and fly agaric, but they contain substances that irritate the gastrointestinal tract. Signs of poisoning appear soon after the consumption of fungi, nausea, vomiting, pain in the stomach and intestines, diarrhea. With severe poisoning, convulsions and severe headache may occur.

    According to ancient medical institutions and some ancient literary sources in the ancient centuries, the Eastern Slavs used a false-red brick-red as a laxative and emetic.

    According to foreign mikologists( mushroom specialists) in some countries( Italy and North America), this mushroom is used for food.

    Falsely sour-yellow aspen( Hypholoma fasciculare( Fr.) Kumm.)

    Falsely-glazed sulfur-yellow - a fungus, relative to the virulence of which in the specialists-mycologists do not have a common opinion. Some consider it simply inedible due to bitter taste, others - weakly poisonous, as often its use causes upset of the gastrointestinal tract, the third - deadly poisonous, with all signs of poisoning.

    Distinctive features. Hat in diameter from 2 to 5 cm, at a young age is convex, then spread out. The skin in the center is darker in color - yellow-brown or reddish-brown, brighter at the edge, yellowish. The flesh is bitter, whitish or light yellow. The plates adherent to the stem are first grayish-yellow, then become gray, greenish or black-olive. The foot is smooth, hollow, thin, up to 10 cm long, and 3-5 mm thick, light yellow, fibrous, without a ring. Spore powder chocolate brown( Fig.).

    Fig. Lozhnoopenok sour-yellow

    Places of growth. It grows from May to October in all types of forests. Most often on rotten hardwood and softwood, as a rule, in large groups on stumps, as well as on land near them.

    In order to avoid troubles during collection, it is not worthwhile to put in the box a false sulfur yellow beetle. From edible fungi the false-gray chamois is distinguished by the color of Hats, plates and spore powder. An additional sign that should alert the mushroom picker is that the poisonous false heron smells unpleasant, earthy, whereas for edible a pleasant mushroom flavor is characteristic.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. According to the research of some scientists, the sulfur-yellow false-fog contains poison that affects the blood. Symptoms of poisoning are common: dizziness, headache, nausea, loss of consciousness. During the rendered first aid leads to recovery. Otherwise, a fatal outcome is possible.

    Amanita virosa( Amanita virosa)

    Amanita smelly, or white toadstool, is a deadly poisonous species from the genus of fly agarics. Refers to the genus of plate-shaped fungi of the order agaric, a rather rare species.

    Distinctive features of .Hat in diameter from 5 to 12 cm, hemispherical, conical, pure white, slightly mucous, dry in shining state. The flesh is also white, with an unpleasant odor. Leg shaggy, white, thin, to the base thickened, up to 7 cm long, and 10 to 15 mm thick, with a delicate white ring. The edges of the white sacciform vagina( volva) at the base of the leg are free. The plates are white, not adhered to the stem. Spore powder white( Fig.).

    Fig. Fly agaric smelly, or white toadstool

    Places of growth. Fly agaric is the most poisonous and causes especially severe poisoning. It appears somewhat earlier than the pale toadstool. The distribution of mushroom is wide enough. It occurs from July to September, almost throughout the entire territory of our country, grows in coniferous and mixed damp forests, linden trees along the slopes of beams and sandy soils.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!).Amanita is difficult to confuse with other fungi, however, there are cases when inexperienced mushroom pickers took young specimens of white grebe for a tuberous tubby, different from the fly agaric of this species with pinkish-gray plates.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. In the fly agaric, smelly, as in other species, besides the Amaniites, toxin virosine and some other toxic substances are contained. When poisoning after half an hour, but more often after 5-6 h, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, increased salivation and sweating, seizures, begins tearing, there is a strong motor excitation with auditory andvisual hallucinations. There are cases when a short-term improvement of the condition is established, but it does not last long, since internal organs, primarily the liver and kidneys, are affected. With the progression of the process, a person falls into the unconscious state, blood circulation is disrupted, and cardiac activity is weakened. The lethal outcome of poisonous poisoning with fly agaric is noted in 50 cases out of 100. Usually, death occurs 8-10 days after the poisonous fungus enters the esophagus.

    In nature there are about 50 species of fly agarics, in our country there are about 30 species. And although most of them are poisonous, however, there are also edible. These include fly agaric gray-pink, Caesar fungus. However, they can be used only with full confidence in the correct definition of the fungus.

    Amanita muscaria

    Amanita muscaria is a very poisonous fungus, the most striking representative of the genus of mushrooms of the Agaric family. Amanita muscaria has a hallucinogenic effect.

    Distinctive features. A hat of adult specimens can reach in diameter from 10 to 20 cm. In young fungi it is almost spherical, in mature, flat-convex, with striped margin. The skin is bright red or orange-red, the surface is covered with white or slightly yellowish numerous warts. Flesh white, slightly yellow under the skin, without zapah, soft. The plates are wide, white, loose, with old mushrooms yellowing and frequent. Spores are elliptical, smooth and colorless.

    The pedicle is cylindrical, at the base tuberiform, reaches up to 90 cm in length, and in thickness - 25-35 mm. In young mushrooms it is dense and white, with age it becomes hollow, naked, with a white or yellowish ring. The tuberous base of the peduncle, covered with white warts in several rows, is fused with the volva( vagina)( Fig.).

    Fig. Amanita muscaria

    Growth sites .A very common species, growing from June to autumn frosts throughout Russia. More common in coniferous, deciduous, mixed forests. Much and abundantly, in large groups and grows alone in birch forests.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). Red fly agarics have been familiar to many since childhood, they can not be confused with any other species of mushrooms.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Compared with a pale toadstool, the fly agaric is less toxic. In addition, due to external recognizability, the probability of poisoning is very low. Most often, the danger lies in wait for children, who are attracted by the beautiful appearance of this fungus.

    Unlike the toxins of pale toadstool, the poisons of fly agaric, including red, act much faster. The first signs are observed after half an hour, but completely manifested in 5-6 hours after the use of toxic fungi. The main symptoms: vomiting, excessive salivation and sweating, diarrhea, convulsions, loss of consciousness. In red fly agaric, there are substances that affect the human psyche, causing delirium and hallucinations. From ancient times, this fungus in India, Scandinavia, the Far North and South America used in ritual ceremonies. A lethal dose for a person is eating 3-4 big fly agarics.

    You should know: in addition to poisonous substances that cause severe poisoning, the fly agaric red contains a special coloring element, which is considered a good antitumor agent.

    Amanita pantherina( Amanita pantherina)

    Panther fly agaric is a poisonous fungus that occurs quite often.

    Distinctive features. This type of fly agar of this species reaches up to 12 cm in diameter, in young specimens it is spherical or campanulate, later it becomes spread, in the center with a wide tubercle, usually riveted along the margin. The color of the cap is olive-dirty, yellow-brown, brownish or brown, fading to brownish white. The skin is sticky, with numerous white flakes, arranged in circles. The fungus's flesh is dense, white, with an unpleasant odor, does not turn red at the break. The plates are white, narrowed to the foot. Spore powder white.

    Leg up to 13 cm long, in thickness reaches 5-15 mm, slightly narrowed upward. At the base it is tuberous, surrounded by an adherent but easily separated volva. The ring on the leg is thin, white, striped, rapidly disappearing( Fig.).

    Fig. Amanita panther

    Places of growth. It occurs from July to October in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests with the participation of oak and pine. It grows, as a rule, on sandy soil solitary and small troupes.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). In adult specimens of the panther's fly agaric the white outgrowths on the bonnet are often poorly expressed, so they are often confused in appearance with the growing autumn tuberous honey agarics. In addition, it sometimes develops white, easily erased mold, which creates a kind of flakes. Therefore, when autumn harvesting is carried out from the ground, care should be taken not to confuse them with poisonous panther fly agarics.

    There are cases when the panther fly agaric was confused with fly-agaric gray-pink, which is considered edible. However, these fungi have differences, which can not be forgotten. For fly-agino gray-pink is characterized by a pale reddish, gray-pink or reddish-brown cap with dirty gray flakes. The flesh has no smell, and most importantly - it blushes at the break( what is different from the non-blushing panther fly agaric).In adult mushrooms, the stem and the ring on it are also reddish.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. This species of mushroom contains a complex of poisons, in addition to muscarin, especially should be allocated muscaridine, which is called mushroom atropine. Its effect is similar to the poisons of plants such as dope and whitened. Symptoms of poisoning can be manifested after 20-30 minutes after eating mushrooms. As a rule, severe headache, visual disturbance, dizziness, abdominal pain are noted. With severe poisoning, loss of consciousness and severe insanity are observed. More often, the poisoning with fly agaric panther ends in recovery. However, if there is no assistance, and if the body is weakened, there are some kidney or liver diseases, then a fatal outcome is possible.

    Amanita citrina( Amanita citrina)

    Amanita is enigmatic, or yellow-green, - a poisonous fungus, one of the most dangerous, similar in its effect to poisoning pale toadstool.

    Distinctive features of .The hat is up to 10 cm in diameter, flat-convex, slightly impressed in the center, the skin is initially white, but as the fungus grows yellowish-greenish, covered with large white or grayish flakes. Flesh white, under the skin yellowish, odor unpleasant. Platelets adherent to the pedicle, narrow, frequent, white, sometimes with a yellowish margin. Spore powder white.

    The foot of an adult fungus can reach up to 12 cm in length, it reaches 25 mm in thickness, white or slightly yellow in color, slightly narrowed from above, and thickened at the base, tuberiformly swollen. The leg is inserted into the vulva( vagina) that has attached to its base. The ring on the leg is fleshy, white, but grows yellowish or greenish as it grows( Fig.).

    Fig. Amanita Amanita, or yellowish-green

    Places of growth .Fly-agaric amanita is found singly or in small groups from July to October. Rusty prefers on light sandy soil in coniferous and deciduous forests, mainly in pine forests.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). In appearance and in action is like a grebe pale.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Like all fly-agaric, this species contains substances that negatively affect the nervous system. Its toxicity is due to the presence of thermostable poisons that cause poisoning, often lethal. Symptoms of poisoning with fly agaric are the same as for all kinds of fly agaric.

    Places of growth. Distributed fairly widely. Appears from July to October, prefers to settle in coniferous, mostly pine forests. It always grows in separate copies.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!).Amanita porphyritis is dangerous primarily for experienced mushroom pickers, as a poisonous mushroom can be confused with edible fly agaric gray-pink( fly agaric).

    Amorphous porphyry Amanita porphyria

    Porphyry agaric, or gray, is a poisonous fungus, not as common as the rest of the family, but no less dangerous to humans.

    Distinctive features. Hat 4-9 cm in diameter, first convex, later spread out. The color is grayish-brown, purple or gray-brown with a blue-purple hue. The remains were covered with a smooth, slightly striped edge, with flaky flakes. The flesh is white. Plates thin, frequent, loose or weakly attached, white in color. Leg up to 10 cm long and 10 mm thick, sometimes swollen at the base. The color is white with a grayish tint, the ring is also white or grayish. Vagina( volva) fused with a tuberous base of the legs, first white, with age of the fungus darkening. Spore powder white( Fig.).

    Fig. Amanita porphyry, or gray

    Poisonous substances and signs of poisoning. Porphyry fly agaric contains alkaloid bufotenin, which has a weak psychotropic effect, which leads to disruption of the central nervous system: hallucinations, loss of consciousness, fits of laughter, which quickly turn to crying, etc.

    Mountain creek( Cortinarius orelIanus)

    Spiderweb - deadly poisonousa species that occurs quite rarely. Distinctive features of .The cap of the spider web is felt or finely scaly, in diameter it reaches 3-8 cm, in young fungi it is convex, but then it becomes flat, sometimes with a tubercle in the center. The color is orange-buffy, orange-red-brown. The flesh is yellowish or yellowish-brownish, with the smell of radish. The plates are adherent, fairly thick, wide, sparse, orange-brown. Leg fibrous, without bands, 4 to 9 cm long, 10-20 mm thick, cylindrical in shape or slightly narrowed to base. The color is light yellow, in the upper part of golden or lemon-yellow hues. Spore powder yellowish-brown( Fig.).

    Fig. Spiderweb

    Places of growth .It lives in oak and beech forests. In Russia, it is found in the Penza region, it may also be found in other regions of the country.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). The genus of spider webs is one of the most numerous, so when collecting them, you should exercise the utmost care not to confuse edible species with poisonous ones. For this it is necessary to know all the external signs of the encountered cobwebs.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. In the cobweb of the mountain, a complex of toxins known as orllanines is found. It includes 10 substances, among which the most dangerous are griminal and cortinarine. Toxins of this group do not change their toxic properties even at very high temperatures, they also remain in mushrooms during drying. Orellanins have the strongest nephrotoxic effect, which negatively affects the work of the kidneys, up to a lethal outcome. Symptoms of poisoning can occur only 2-17 days after the use of fungi in food: thirst, vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, digestive disorders, dry mouth, nervous system disorders, seizures, increased blood pressure. The danger of fungal poisoning of this species is that the fatal outcome of uremia - self-poisoning of the body caused by impaired renal function - may occur 6 days later, and sometimes 160 days later.

    About 400 species belong to the genus of spider webs, about 200 of them grow in Russia, among which there are edible, conditionally edible and poisonous mushrooms. Some types of cobwebs are poorly understood, and therefore their edible properties are unknown. Therefore, when collecting this type of mushroom, it is necessary to show great caution because of the difficulty in identifying the cobwebs.

    Spider web is beautiful( Cortinarius speciosissimus)

    Spiderweb is beautiful - the fungus is quite rare, but very dangerous, as it can lead to serious poisoning up to a lethal outcome.

    Distinctive features. Hat in diameter from 3 to 7 cm, in shape - spread conical, in color - tawny, covered with small scales. The flesh is also reddish-brown with a slight but perceptible smell of radish. Plates from ocher to cherry red. On the orange-brown stalk ocherous belts are visible( Fig.).

    Fig. Spiderweb beautiful

    Places of growth. Occurs rarely, grows in oak forests. Fruiting time is from July to September.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). Externally, the beautiful spider web is very similar to the variety of ginkgo - armillaria deeper, for which the most fertile are the same places of growth. The main difference between a poisonous double and a cane is the presence of ocherous belts on the foot, as well as ocher and cherry-red plates instead of white or yellowish in the cane.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Spiderweb beautiful contains a toxin called orlananin, which causes pathological changes in the kidneys. The danger of orelanan is that the signs of poisoning begin to appear quite late, sometimes 7-14 days after eating the mushroom in food. They are expressed in nausea, severe thirst, vomiting, pain in the abdominal region, the appearance in the mouth of a feeling of dryness and burning. The painful condition lasts from 1-2 weeks to several months. If during the first aid is not provided, then a fatal outcome is possible: in severe cases, death can occur even after 5 months after taking a dangerous mushroom in food.

    Spiderweb blood-red( Cortinarius Sanguineus)

    Spiderweb blood-red is a poisonous mushroom, with careless eating of which kidney pathologies can occur.

    Distinctive features. The cap is silky or fibrous; at the young age it is convex, later flattened, dry, and reaches 2-4 cm in diameter. The skin color is dark red or reddish-brown, in the center small brownish scales sometimes appear. The pulp is thin, with the smell of radish, from light brownish to dark blood-red. Plates are frequent, wide, prirozhie denticle, the same color as the boat, during the maturation of the spores become brown. The length of the leg is 3-6 cm, the thickness is 5-10 mm, it is cylindrical in shape, slightly thickened to the base. The color of the legs is blood-red, below with a pink or bright yellow felt mycelium. Spore powder brown( Fig.).

    Fig. Spiderweb blood-red

    Places of growth .The blood-red spider web is widespread widely, as a rule, it occurs in moist forests of various types, mainly conifers, on soils with a relatively high content of humus. It grows from July to September in the northern and western regions of the European part of Russia, in Siberia, the Urals and the Far East.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). Poisonous spiderweb blood-red is easy to take for edible spiderweb bracelet( spider web red), on the leg of which red transverse zones are clearly discernible.

    A poisonous substance called orllanin was described by the Polish scientist Grzhimala, who studied it after numerous poisonings with mushrooms of the spiderweb family in Poland. Orellanin has the strongest nephrotoxic effect, and the substances entering into it are resistant to high temperatures and even remain in fruit bodies when dried.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. The toxicity of the blood-red spiderweb is determined by the content of orlanlanin - a poisonous substance,

    poisoning which can cause irreparable changes in the kidneys. The first symptoms of poisoning: vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, severe thirst, - require immediate intervention and medical care.

    Subducting kit( Boletus impolitus)

    Poddubnik, or oak-brown olive-brown, is a mushroom, about the edibility of which many argue: for example, in our country many mushroom pickers consider it to be edible, but in Germany and some Western European countries it is considered to be poisonous.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). It can be taken as a boletus( white fungus).The main difference of the poisonous fungus is that when the incision is made( it is better to do a share) the flesh quickly turns blue.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. When consumed in large quantities and improperly processed mushrooms, symptoms can be easily poisoned: dizziness, nausea, pain in the gastrointestinal tract.

    White Thrower( Tricholoma album)

    White Throbbing - a fungus, about the edibility of which there is no unanimity among mycologists: according to one data, white rats are poisonous, in others it is inedible, i.e., not used in nutrition. In our country there are more than 45 kinds of ryadovok( there are more than 90 species in the world), among them there are edible, inedible, and also poisonous.

    Distinctive features. The hat of white rowing in diameter reaches 6-11 cm, at first it is convex, later spreading, with a wide wavy edge, often a large hill is clearly visible in the center. The color of the cap of the cap is white or cream white, in the center slightly brownish or grayish. Flesh white, thick, fibrous. The plates are wide, frequent, slightly running down the stem, notched, white. Leg is white, elastic, long, 7-8 cm high, 10-15 mm wide, thickened at the base, with a light mealy top. Spore powder white( Fig.).

    Fig. Seedling white

    Places of growth .It occurs from July to September. It prefers to grow in conifers, it can be seen in deciduous and mixed forests of the European part of Russia and Primorsky Krai.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). The white rowing can be taken for mushrooms or other kinds of edible ryadovok.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning .In the rank-and-file, a small number of toxins are present, possessing neurotropic and local irritant effects. Therefore, the symptoms of management are manifested in the violation of digestive functions, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, light hallucinations, etc. When providing first aid, there comes a complete recovery.

    White-brown ranks( Tricholoma albobrunneum).

    The white and brown ranks are mushrooms, the food qualities of which are disputed both among domestic and foreign mycologists. Some consider this species to be edible, others refer to poisonous fungi.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!) .The brown-and-brown peasant looks like an edible red-brown peasant. At collection it is necessary to pay attention to the color of the cap, as well as the plates and flesh of the legs - they are gray-yellow in the edible double.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. In the white-brown ranks, little-known toxic substances and harmful alkaloids were found. Therefore, at the first sign of poisoning, manifested in weakness, nausea, vomiting, gait disturbance, abdominal pain, dizziness, it is necessary to give first aid or call a doctor.

    Serity-yellow rowing( Tricholoma sulphureum)

    The sulfur-yellow ryadovka is a mushroom, about the edibility of which the information is very contradictory, since it is regarded as inedible and poisonous species.

    Distinctive features. Hat in diameter reaches 3-10 cm, first conical, with tubercle, as it grows it becomes a plane convex. The color is bright-sulfur-yellow, in the center is darker, at the edges a little lighter. Pulp is greenish or sulfur-yellow, odor unpleasant - tar or hydrogen sulphide. Plates are rare, narrow, sulfur yellow. The foot is even, often curved, whitish-yellow-gray, in length reaches 5-8 cm, and in thickness-from 7 to 10 mm. Spore powder white( Fig.).

    Fig. Seria yellow-gray

    Places of growth .It grows from August to October in coniferous and deciduous forests on land and on stumps.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!) .With other types of ryadovok( ryadovka isolated, earthy gray, gray, yellow-red, etc.), which are quite edible.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Toxication appears most common in poisoning with signs that are observed when poisoning with fungi: abdominal pain, dizziness, headache, nausea, vomiting. The timely delivery of first aid and timely access to a doctor lead to a full recovery.

    Satanic mushroom( Boletus satanas)

    Satan's mushroom is a poisonous double of a white fungus. Since ancient times in the people it is called not only satanic, but also a forest devil.

    Distinctive features. A hat with a diameter of up to 8 cm, thick-minted, cushion-shaped, smooth. Slightly velvety, dry, sometimes moist, sometimes mucous, brownish-gray or olive-gray, sometimes with a green tint. The tubular layer on the cap is wide, the tubes are long, along the edge of the red. In rainy weather, the skin on the cap is covered with mucus. The flesh is dense, whitish-yellow in color, slightly yellowish in the stalk, reddens on the fracture, then turns blue or green, the smell is unpleasant, the taste is sweetish. Leg is tuberous, thick, yellowish or orange, with a red mesh pattern. The lower part of the foot near the ground is brick-colored. Spore powder olive( Fig.).

    Fig. Satanic fungus

    Places of growth. Most often found in the southern regions of our country. It grows from July to October in pine, deciduous and mixed forests.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). Satan's mushroom is very similar to a boletus, but differs from it by the color of the tubular layer of the cap and the leg - it is thicker. In addition, the flesh of the poisonous fungus on the cut first reddens, then turns blue, while the fungus is white.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Signs of poisoning are usually observed in cases where Satanic fungus is used without cooking cooking. However, episodes were recorded when toxicity was observed with a high intake of fungi or their incorrect processing. Poisoning manifests itself in gastric disorders - diarrhea, nausea and vomiting.

    Piglet thin( Paxillus in volutus)

    Piglet is thin - a very common and common mushroom. Local names: dunka, cow's lip. Until recently, it was considered conditionally edible, but after numerous poisonings, specialists were forced to do a deeper study of the fungi of this family. At present, the pig is classified as thin to inedible, which, under adverse conditions of growth, can cause poisoning.

    Distinctive features of .The hat of a small pig can reach a diameter of up to 20 cm. At a young age, it is flat with a curved edge, with the growth of the fungus becomes funnel-shaped with deeply folded inside edges. The surface is velvety, brownish brown. The plates are slightly flattish, easily separated from the cap, yellowish-brown in color, after pressure, they become dark brown. The flesh of the fungus is dense, fleshy, dirty-yellowish in color, on the break turns brown. Leg short, thick, solid, smooth, of the same color as the cap( Fig.).

    Fig. Fine pinhole

    Places of growth. Although slender pig is very unpretentious, but prefer to grow in wet soil in groups, rarely solitary. Mushrooms appear in June, they can be collected until October, live in coniferous and deciduous( more often birch forests, oak forests, shrubs), mainly in sparse forests, in glades and fringes. You can meet them even on bare ground, on the roadside, in urban gardens, parks and even near human habitation.

    To get rid of poisonous substances, mushrooms must be soaked for a long time before use, then boil, drain water, and only after that mushrooms can be used for cooking - they are fried, salted and marinated.

    Regular stitch( Gyromitra esculenta)

    The stitch is an ordinary mushroom, about the edibility of which even experienced mushroom pickers argue. It is proved that the lines contain toxic substances, and they can not be used fresh. However, after five to six months of drying, the poison is destroyed, and then the lines can be used for food. In some publications it is considered a conditionally edible fungus, whereas in Europe it is considered to be poisonous.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). It has a similarity to the conditionally edible fungi of the morels, from which it is distinguished by the appearance of the cap, it is narrower, reaches 2-4 cm in diameter, elongate-conical or elongate-ovoid, adherent along the edge to the stalk, hollow, mesh-like from the outside, with elongated cells, brown.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Fruit bodies contain very toxic substances that are destroyed during long-term storage of the fungus. The origin of the toxin contained in the lines is still unknown. Some mycologists suggest that it is formed as a result of the decomposition of proteins in overripe fruit bodies of fungi. Symptoms of poisoning are observed after 6-10 hours. They appear in watery diarrhea, severe vomiting, headache, fatigue, convulsions, jaundice, severe pain in the liver and stomach. If you do not take measures to remove toxins from the human body, toxicity can lead to a violation of the functions of lung and heart failure, which lead to death. There are data that fungi also have carcinogenic properties.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). The appearance of a thin pig is very individual, and therefore does not have similarities with other fungi.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. It is established that in the fruit body of swine there are substances that destroy red blood cells, which can accumulate in the blood of a person. When boiling, some of these substances break up, but some remain. Especially dangerous are the toxic elements contained in improperly prepared mushrooms, for children, the elderly, as well as for people with diseased kidneys, liver, cardiovascular system. With frequent use of swine, there are often irreversible phenomena that can eventually become a cause of anemia.

    Chardon mushroom( Agaricus xanthoderma Gen)

    Redhead mushroom is a poisonous fungus, which should be distinguished from other edible species of mushrooms growing in natural conditions or cultivated.

    Distinctive features of .Hat up to 15 cm in diameter, young mushrooms rounded, later broad-pointed, finely scaly and silky. The skin is white in color, in the center is brown, and when pressed, yellowing. The pulp is white, on the incision is yellowing, somewhat thinner than in edible species, it smells of carbolic acid. The plates are thin, narrow, at first white, mature mushrooms are bright pink, the old ones are dark brown. The color of the spore powder is chocolate or brownish brown.

    Leg is white, hollow, with a pleated ring, at the base is bloated. The length of the leg is from 6 to 10 cm, thickness - 10-20 mm( Fig.).

    Fig. Champignon reddening

    Places of growth. Grow mushroom reddish from July to September in deciduous and mixed forests. Sometimes this mushroom can be seen in parks and gardens, as well as in meadows and glades in the habitats of other kinds of mushrooms.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!) .The main distinguishing feature of the poisonous mushroom reddish - the smell of carbolic acid( the so-called drug smell).Therefore, when going to collect mushrooms, you should remember about this peculiarity of the poisonous species. Edible species of champignons always smell nice: the August and field mushrooms have an anise smell and nutty taste, and the usual field mushroom flavor is typical for the field mushroom.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Toxication occurs only after 15 minutes, at the latest after 1 hour. Poisoning, as a rule, is mild, not life threatening and occurs after 2-4 days. Poisonous substances in the mushroom reddish, have a local irritant effect, especially the digestive system, so there are abdominal pains, nausea and vomiting. There may also be dizziness, headache. The first aid rendered during the time leads to complete recovery.

    Entoloma spring( Entoloma vernum Lundell)

    Entoloma spring, or rosewood, is a poisonous fungus belonging to the genus Entoloma, which includes about 40 species, of which in Russia grows more than 20 species. Among entolom, as a rule, inedible and poisonous species are more common, while edible are only a few.

    Distinctive features of .The hat of the entoloma of spring is thin-haired, silky, shiny, in shape broad-conical or campanulate with a tubercle in the center, 2-5 cm in diameter. Color from olive- and gray-brown to black-brown, sometimes with a reddish tinge. The plates are slightly adnate, pale gray, then dirty-pink-red. Leg fibrous, 3-8 cm long and 3-5 mm thick. The color is the same color as the hats, but somewhat lighter. The pulp is whitish, the odor is indeterminate or mealy( Fig.).

    Fig. Entoloma spring, or rosewood

    Places of growth. Appears in May-June, grows in the grass, in the same places as the edible entoloma of the thyroid, or the garden. You can find a mushroom in the coniferous forests of the European part of Russia, the North Caucasus, Western and Eastern Siberia.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). To a poisonous entolom spring it is easy to take for an edible entolom garden or for a young champignon.

    Toxic substances and signs of poisoning. Toxins of the fungus have neurotropic action, i.e., after 1/2 hour cause disturbances in the central nervous system. They manifest themselves in hallucinations, attacks of laughter or crying, loss of consciousness, digestive disorders. In addition, general signs characteristic of poisoning are noted: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness. If you consume a significant amount of poisonous entol, a lethal outcome is possible.

    Entoloma sinuatum( Ball, et fr.) Kumm.)

    Entoloma is a vesicular-lamellar, or giant rosewatch is a poisonous fungus belonging to the genus of entoloma.

    Distinctive features. The hat is large, glabrous, fibrous and striped, with a diameter of 5 to 17 cm, with a smooth surface, slightly sticky, with a shiny drying. At the initial stage of growth, convex with tubercle, as the fungus grows, becomes funnel-shaped with a wavy-curved thick margin. The color is monophonic, whitish, corporeal or corpulent-yellow.

    Leg is whitish, cylindrical, up to 10 cm long and up to 20 mm thick, the surface is silky. The flesh is white, the taste and the smell of flour. The plates of the young fungus are yellowish, then become yellowish-pink. Spore powder pink( Fig.).

    Fig. Entoloma vyemchatato-lamellar, or rozovoplastinnik giant

    Places of growth. This poisonous mushroom is considered thermophilic, therefore it lives more often in the south of the forest zone of our country and in the Caucasus. It occurs from May to September, grows in broad-leaved forests, especially in oak forests on the fringes, among bushes.

    To pay attention( not to be confused!). Entomolu vyemchatato-plankovuyu often confused with an edible species - entoloma of the thyroid( garden), as well as champignon wood.