Pediculosis: treatment, photo, prevention, control measures
Outbreaks are associated with disasters, military conflicts and other events that create unsanitary conditions for a large number of people.
Outside of these situations, pediculosis is more common in social groups with a low level of hygiene, although there has recently been an increase in the disease caused by climate warming, poor people's awareness of the disease, improper treatment and high population density in large cities.
Causes of the occurrence of lice
The sources of the disease are lice that are transmitted from an infected person to a healthy person through close physical contact, through objects of individual use or sexually, the method depends on the type of insect. From animals this kind of parasites can not be obtained.
Three kinds of lice are parasitized on a person: head, ward and pubic. Usually, pediculosis causes one of the presented species, but they can get along together, then they talk about a mixed type of disease. There are several appropriate forms of pediculosis: head, ward and pubic. The peculiarities of the course are related to the specific features of a particular type of parasite.
Head lice prefer to settle on the scalp in the neck and temples. A semi-transparent grayish insect feeds on human blood. Life expectancy of the female is a little over a month. Every day she can lay about ten eggs, which she attaches near the roots of her hair with a special sticky secret. Grayish-white nits will turn into larvae after a week, after two they will become adults and the cycle will repeat.
The person starts combing the injury site, thereby increasing the risk of infection. At the place of the disturbed bite, the skin turns red, seals and crusts appear. Infection can spread to nearby lymph nodes.
Louse lice eat on the victim's body, but live and lay nits in the seams and folds of a person's clothing. Parasites are found around the neck, between the shoulder blades, in the knee and elbow folds and at the waist. After themselves, they leave itching and rashes, similar to hives.
If this form of the disease does not find proper treatment, skin inflammation and complicated dermatological diseases appear. The skin becomes thicker, its shade changes to gray-brown, combed bites are covered with white scars.
Pubic lice( raincoats) choose the areas of the pubis and anus for the habitat. The method of transmission of this parasite is predominantly sexual, although infection through everyday objects is not excluded. With a fairly dense hair cover on other parts of the body( abdomen, eyebrows, beard, underarm zone), the probability of spreading pubic lice increases.
In addition to bites and unpleasant itching, pubic lice leave small spots of bluish-gray color on the human body, in the middle of which the point of bite is visible. Markings disappear within one or two weeks.
Also read the symptoms and treatment of demodicosis in humans.
Symptoms of pediculosis, photos of
There are symptoms that correspond to all forms of lice:
- incessant itching, which causes scratching and formation of bloody crusts;
- visual detection on the head, clothing, trunk and in the genital area of lice and nits;
- papules and erythema in lesions;
- appearance of dermatitis with advanced pediculosis;
- appearance of irritability and problems with sleep;
- pyoderma, as a result of constant scratching and damage to the integrity of the skin.
- 1) In the head form of the disease on the back of the head and temples, clusters of lice and nits are found; in the long course of the disease, serous-purulent exudate may appear that covers the hair and glues them, sometimes the lesion extends to the eyebrows, eyelashes, ear-tips and areas behind the ears;
- 2) The symptoms of maternity lice are found in the seams and folds of clothing, less often on the body of lice and nits, the skin becomes rougher, because of the constant scratching, milanodermia appears;
- 3) The main manifestations of lice are lice, their nits in hair covering the pubis, the lower abdomen, in some cases they extend to the eyelashes, eyebrows, mustaches and beards, in the same places, bluish spots from bites are found.
Treatment of pediculosis
To combat pediculosis use of mechanical, chemical and physical methods.
The complexity of home treatment is the need to remove adult lice and nits, which are not always amenable to extirpation by anti-pediculosis drugs. In addition, the method of treatment for pediculosis is associated with the specific form of the disease.
The easiest way to get rid of pubic lice. For this purpose, the hair on the pubis, perineum and armpits are shaved and the affected areas are treated with borax ointment. This is an effective measure to prevent infection and inflammation.
Measures to combat lice begin with boiling, treating with steam or special disinsection solutions all clothing and underwear of the victim, paying special attention to the seams and folds. Things after treatment, it is desirable to leave in the sun for a week for the final removal of parasites from them. The infected person undergoes treatment with preparations from a pediculosis.
When detecting lice on the head, resort to means directed against insects. These drugs can have different forms - ointments, cream, shampoo, aerosol and others. The most popular of this group is a 20% suspension of benzyl benzonate and a five percent boric ointment.
Nits are more protected from their effects, so after applying these drugs, it is absolutely necessary to cut through the hair and remove the detected eggs of parasites. After the treatment, the hair is combed with a comb with frequent prongs. It helps to get rid of destroyed lice.
Before using lice, follow the instructions and follow the instructions in the treatment process, as these drugs have increased toxicity. Pregnant and lactating women, young children and allergic people are contraindicated.
Regardless of the form of the disease, it is recommended that all the personal belongings of the victim be processed and that people who are in contact with it are checked for parasites.
Measures for the prevention of pediculosis
To prevent the possibility of infection with pediculosis, regular preventive examinations should be carried out, hygiene rules must be adhered to strictly, and only individual instruments for their implementation should be used. You can not try on someone else's clothes.
If infection is detected, prophylaxis also involves thorough disinfection of common areas, upholstered furniture, carpet coverings.
In the pubic form of the disease, the partner of the infected person undergoes treatment. After the detection of head lice in large groups( kindergarten groups, school classes), conduct preventive examinations and treatment of all children, as well as members of their families.
Pediculosis in most cases does not pose a threat to human health, but it is a source of unpleasant itching and psychological discomfort for a person.
Complications depend on the form of the disease. Infection with head lice in the absence of treatment can lead to the appearance of more severe skin diseases, for example, dermatitis, boils. When a pediculosis dress is worn, there is a threat of infection with typhoid. The places of scratching can become sources of secondary infection.
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