What is the level of leukocytes
Mar 22, 2018
White blood cells, white blood cells,formed and maturing in the cells of the red bone marrow and lymph nodes and playing a huge role in protecting the body from viruses, microbes, fungi, bacteria and other foreign microorganisms.
What are leukocytes and what is their role in the body ^
WBCs, along with platelets and red blood cells, belong to the uniform, that is, the cellular elements of the blood.
Leukocytes include a whole group of cells, each of which performs a specific protective function:
- So, lymphocytes have the unique property not only to distinguish the foreign protein( antigen) from their own cells, but they also have immune memory, that is, they "remember" all the microbes that they have ever met and know how to deal with themfight.
- When any infection gets into the body, lymphocytes are the first to meet "uninvited guests", quickly recognize foreign antigens and trigger a chain of immune reactions. It is the lymphocytes that are the central link of the immunity of the whole organism.
- Neutrophils are the most numerous cells of leukocytes, making 93 - 96% of the total mass and able to quickly move to the focus of inflammation.
- When a bacterial or fungal infection occurs, they multiply rapidly and easily penetrate the walls of the capillaries into infected tissues.
- The main function of neutrophils is the absorption and dissolution of small foreign particles( phagocytosis), after which they die.
- Eosinophils, although less numerous than neutrophils, have similar properties - actively move in the direction of the source of infection, easily pass through capillaries and absorb small foreign cells.
- In addition, eosinophils bind and absorb histamine and other mediators of allergy, playing an antiallergic or pro-allergic role, and also protect the body from many parasites and helminths, including from helminthic invasions.
- Monocytes, also called phagocytic mononuclear cells or tissue macrophages, unlike neutrophils and eosinophils, carry out phagocytosis of larger particles( damaged tissues, microbes, dead leukocytes), not perishing after phagocytosis, but clearing and preparing the site of inflammation for subsequent recoveryregeneration).
- Basophils - the smallest type of leukocytes( 0-1%) are a real "first aid" for intoxications and bites of poisonous insects or animals.
- Due to the presence of large amounts of serotonin, histamine, prostaglandins and other mediators of inflammation and allergy in basophils, they block the incoming poisons in the tissues and prevent them from spreading throughout the body.
Leukocytes in the blood: norm and abnormalities ^
The norm of leukocytes in the blood is not constant, it varies within rather wide limits( even during the day) and depends on many factors( age, phase of the menstrual cycle in women, pregnancy, etc.)..
However, it is necessary to distinguish between pathological and, so-called, physiological leukocytosis, when leukocytes temporarily rise after eating, bathing in hot or cold water, after considerable physical exertion, before menstruation or during pregnancy.
That's why, it is always advisable to give blood in the morning on an empty stomach so that at least 8 to 12 hours pass from the time of the last meal. In addition, refrain from taking tests from physical exertion, contrasting water procedures and try not to be nervous, since nervous tension and stresses can significantly distort the result of the analysis.
The norm of leukocytes in the blood of
|at 1 day of life is 8.5 - 24.5 x 109 in a liter of||from 7 to 12 years - 4.5-10 x 109|
|in 1 month - 6.5 - 13.8x 109||from 13 to 15 years - 4.3 - 9.5 x 109|
|at 6 months - 5.5 - 12.5 x 109||in adult women - 4 - 9 x 109|
|per year - 6 - 12 x 109||in adult men - 4 - 9 x 109|
|from 1 to 6 years - 5 - 12 x 109||in pregnant women - up to 15 x 109|
The determination of the number of leukocytes is performed by passing a general blood test( UAC):
- Elevated white blood cells( leukocytosis), usually swineThey determine the presence of any infectious diseases( pneumonia, otitis, bronchitis, meningitis, etc.) in the body, suppuration or inflammatory processes of various localization( pleura, abdominal cavity, subcutaneous tissue).
- If leukocytes are lowered( leukopenia), then usually talk about low immunity and it is necessary to search for the cause of inhibition of their formation in the bone marrow.
The most common cause of low leukocytes are:
- effects of radiation( radiation sickness),
- anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency,
- infectious diseases, oncological diseases with bone marrow metastases,
- initial stages of leukemia,
- taking certain medications.
The increase in leukocyte count during pregnancy, especially in the second half, is physiological and is explained by their accumulation in the uterine lining to protect the developing fetus from getting infections and prepare the uterine contractile function for future delivery.
However, this figure should not exceed 15 x 109 per liter and is regularly monitored by the attending physician so as not to miss the onset of the development of dangerous inflammatory processes. In addition to the blood test, the expectant mother should regularly take an urine test and a swab from the vagina to the white blood cells.
Leukocyte blood formula ^
Changing the number of leukocytes in the blood above or below the norm is an equally serious symptom and requires additional research. So, revealing the cause of their pathological increase is necessary to determine the cause of the disease, and a critical reduction( agranulocytosis) can lead to a strong vulnerability and insecurity of the organism before the most common infections.
With a decrease or increase in leukocytes, it is important to know at what expense this type occurred. The analysis of blood with a developed leukocyte formula allows you to get the most reliable picture of the blood state - to see possible complications, developing pathological processes and to predict the outcome of the disease.
The leukocyte formula shows the percentage of all 5 types of leukocytes in the blood serum and allows you to assess the ability of the body to fight infections, identify the severity of allergies and the presence of parasites, predict the adverse effects of individual drugs, monitor the effects of chemotherapy and assess the immune response to viral infections.
Norm of leukocytes in the urine and smear from the vagina ^
In a healthy person, the number of white blood cells in the urine is very low and amounts to - in women up to 5, in men up to 3 in the field of vision;when you pass urine analysis for Nechiporenko, they can be up to 4000 in 1 ml.
An excessive increase in the number of white blood cells in the urine, exceeding 60 in the field of vision, called leukocyturia, usually indicates inflammatory diseases of the kidneys( pyelonephritis), urinary tract and prostate( cystitis, prostatitis, urethritis) or genitalia( thrush, colpitis).
If the purulent inflammatory process begins in the organs of the genitourinary system, then this indicates the development of pyuria, in which the patient's condition deteriorates sharply - the body temperature rises, frequent and painful urge to urinate( with a small discharge of urine) and pain in the lumbar region.
In pyuria, not only does the number of white blood cells in the urine multiply, but also appear inclusions of pus in the form of flakes and filaments visible to the naked eye. In addition, the urine acquires a murky greenish color and an unpleasant odor.
Leukocytes in the vaginal smear
The presence of white blood cells in the smear can be said the same as about the presence in the urine - in a healthy woman they are observed in single amounts. Increasing their number to tens and hundreds indicates the presence of infection in the vagina( thrush, vaginosis or colpitis) and the need to start treatment. Moreover, the number of white blood cells directly indicates the intensity of the process - the more of them, the greater the infection.
The most dangerous vaginal infections in pregnancy, so the future mother should regularly check the presence of white blood cells in the smear, because they are the very first indicator of the onset of the inflammatory process, helping in time to begin adequate treatment and protect themselves and the baby from various complications.
We advise you to watch a video about the role of leukocytes in the body and the decoding of the leukocyte blood count: