Dyslexia: symptoms, correction, the causes of dyslexia in children

  • Dyslexia: symptoms, correction, the causes of dyslexia in children

    What it is? An innate violation of the ability to understand the written text and subsequent problems with reading is called "dyslexia".

    Dyslexia occurs as a result of neurobiological features of a person. It is not recognized as a disease of a psychological or physiological nature.

    A person with this disorder has the level of intellectual and speech development necessary for a full-scale life. In Russian and Anglo-American clinical psychology, there are differences in the definitions of dyslexia.

    So, in Anglo-American psychology, dyslexia means difficulties not only in understanding the text, but also in mastering the art of writing. In Russian clinical psychology for the violation of the ability to write there are separate terms: dysgraphy and dysorptography.

    Symptoms of dyslexia

    Dyslexia, and its corresponding symptoms are revealed at an early age, when the child is just beginning to comprehend reading skills. A child with this violation is extremely difficult to learn letters and their sound. He often confuses close sounds, for example: D-T, B-P, G-K, etc.
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    Of course, every preschool child at the stage of learning the alphabet can confuse letters and their sound values, but a child with dyslexia in any learning processobviously can not master the reading as quickly as his peers.

    Most often, reading problems become less noticeable over time. In adolescence, schoolchildren can already quite tolerably perceive the written text and read almost as quickly as children without dyslexia. Such skills are achieved by a person with dyslexia persistent studies, sometimes with a specialist who can adequately build the learning process.

    Unfortunately, many children and adolescents suffering from dyslexia do not like reading, which, of course, hampers the process of developing their understanding skills. It is worth remembering that not every child who has had some difficulties with reading, understanding sounds and their definition suffers from dyslexia.

    Only a qualified doctor can diagnose this condition, but there are a number of symptoms that may indicate a violation, for example:

    • the child tries to read the book in a strange way, for example, brings it too close, turns his head on reading, reads with one eye and t., e.;
    • quickly gets tired when trying to understand letters and their sound value;
    • the child confuses similar in sounding letters;
    • has difficulty in spelling;
    • complains of headaches when doing homework related to the text;
    • the child experiences difficulties in learning new or long words;
    • suffers from a lack of coordination;
    • shows signs of hyperactivity, etc.
    The above signs of dyslexia can refer to other diseases, for example, to blurred vision or vegetovascular dystonia, therefore, for proper diagnosis of dyslexia, a doctor's consultation is necessary.

    People with congenital dyslexia, although not able to read quickly and have some problems understanding the text, but they often perfectly compensate for this feature. Already in primary school classes, a child with dyslexia may display musical or artistic talent. Sometimes such children are strong in mathematics and other exact sciences.

    Causes of dyslexia

    Until now, the mechanisms of development and the causes of dyslexia are not exactly known. Scientists and doctors associate the appearance of this disorder with heredity, which was proved in studies with identical twins.

    It was found that dyslexia is inherited in 55% of cases on average. In addition, scientists have identified genes that cause changes in those areas of the brain that are responsible for reading and understanding the text. For this reason, dyslexia can be eventually classified as a genetic pathology.

    In addition to congenital dyslexia, there is also acquired. It occurs as a result of brain injuries and is often accompanied by other disorders, for example, a person's inability to speak clearly.

    See also:

    • alalia - impaired ability to speak;
    • dysarthria is a speech disorder.

    Diagnosis of dyslexia

    In most cases, dyslexia is found in children in primary school classes. This disorder is difficult to diagnose, since a specialist must take into account a number of factors.

    In the course of diagnosis, the speed and quality of reading is assessed, the indicators are compared with those of other children. The errors that occur during reading are necessarily highlighted and the doctor evaluates their importance for diagnostic purposes. In addition, the child's ability to reproduce speech, understand information by ear and tactile way are evaluated. The memory and attention of the child are also evaluated.

    Such events often take place in the form of a game, as this allows the child to relax and get carried away by the process, which greatly affects the indicators being measured. In addition, the child must be in good shape. To do this, he needs to sleep, eat well before testing, be in good spirits, and not get sick.

    The evaluations are carefully analyzed by a specialist. After this comes the turn of parents, since dyslexia is often inherited. The specialist conducts a survey of parents, collecting a family history. In the case of dyslexia in other family members, the physician takes this into account in the subsequent evaluation of the results.

    Dyslexia correction

    The correction plan for dyslexia for each child is selected individually, taking into account the peculiarities of his condition. First and foremost, correction of the educational process is necessary, which will allow the child, who has recently been diagnosed with dyslexia, to join the educational process without special difficulties.

    Teachers should understand that in front of them is not a child with developmental backwardness, but a capable pupil with a peculiarity of perception.

    It is also necessary to edit the psychological mood of the child, so that he understands his condition and could bring knowledge about him to other people. Most often, correction of dyslexia is successfully performed with the participation of a speech therapist. The doctor, depending on the state of the child, will choose the most appropriate method of studying words and will be able to conduct a literate work that will smooth the child's condition.

    Thanks to timely and successful correction of dyslexia in adults, it can be weakly expressed, which will not interfere in your personal life, work or study.

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