Symptoms, features of manifestation and treatment of testicular atrophy
Testicular atrophy is a severe and irreversible pathological process, as a result of which testicles sharply decrease in size, and there is a violation of the functions of spermatogenesis and reproduction.
There is a common misconception that this pathology is observed only in individuals who are engaged in bodybuilding and take hormones to build muscle. Actually this is not true. Physicians with such a diagnosis are often treated by men quite far from any kind of sport. Although one of the reasons for the development of the disease, though not the most basic, is the reception of a significant amount of steroids.
The concept of atrophy and hypoplasia of the testicles should not be confused. The latter pathology is observed with congenital underdevelopment of organ tissues, and with atrophic changes there is a violation in the initially healthy and full testicle with a gradual decrease in its functional abilities and sizes.
Regardless of the cause of the onset, the lack of timely measures for testicular atrophy results in the fact that a man develops full infertility.
Men who develop such degenerative changes can not have children, but are able to have sexual intercourse, which affects negatively the prognosis, because for this reason many do not turn in time for help and the process continues to progress.
Why does testicular atrophy develop?
Despite many reasons that can lead to the onset of this disease, it is extremely rare. This is due to the high regenerative abilities of the human body, aimed at preserving the function of reproduction.
The most common causes of testicular atrophy:
- Atherosclerosis. There is a disturbance in nutrition and ischemia of the organ tissues due to the lack of intake of sufficient amounts of oxygen and the necessary substances.
- Change in normal neurohumoral regulation in various diseases of the nervous system.
- Migrated injuries and operations on the scrotum( as a result of compression of the inguinal canal).It often happens that a lot of time passes after the traumatization or operative intervention.
- Hydrocele, orchitis. Epidemic parotitis, transferred in childhood, ends in 25% of cases of orchitis and leads to atrophy of the testicles.
- Cryptorchidism in children. The delay of the testicle in the region of the inguinal canal or abdominal cavity leads to a developmental disorder.
- Severe infectious disease.
- Breaking the hormonal background, obesity.
- Varicocele. Atrophy of the testicle with varicocele develops as a concomitant pathology due to vascular changes, and not as a complication. Stagnation of blood in the dilated veins and hypoxia lead to disruption of nutrition and destruction of the structure of the testicle. The process is exacerbated by pressure on the organ of the enlarged scrotum and overheating due to venous blood.
- Admission of steroid hormones. It occurs in bodybuilders taking steroids, as well as during the treatment of certain diseases requiring the use of glucocorticoids.
- Torsion of the spermatic cord. Sometimes it occurs after infectious processes in the genitals. Atrophy arises from the lack of oxygen and nutrients.
This disease has no age restrictions, it can occur in children, young people and the elderly.
Features of the manifestation of atrophy of the testicle
A characteristic feature of this disease is the reduction of one or both testicles in size, and this can happen quite a long time, or quickly. There is also a change in consistency and the appearance of flabbiness of the organ. This process is seen well with the naked eye and is easily seen by the patient himself. Sometimes atrophy is so severe that instead of the testicle there is only an empty shell.
Common symptoms are observed: weakness, lethargy, decreased muscle tone and decreased sexual desire. In adolescence, signs of testicular atrophy are accompanied by a change in the structure of the body, which begins to develop according to the female type.
Sometimes this process causes symptoms of a pronounced depressive state, which requires correction and professional help of a psychologist.
Diagnosis of the disease
In addition to examination and palpation, there are a number of studies that help to establish the correct diagnosis.
Atrophy of the left testicle, even in the absence of changes in the right leads to a decrease in the volume of sperm. And when you spermogrammi result shows a decrease in the number of spermatozoa.
If only one testicle is involved in the process, spermatogenesis disorders occur in both, because these paired organs are linked together by neurohumoral regulation. And over time, changes begin in the second testicle.
An additional method of research in this disease is ultrasound angiography. At full atrophy in the damaged organ there are no signs of blood circulation. This helps to assess the objective state of organs and their functioning. To evaluate the hormonal background, the blood is examined.
Methods for assisting with testicular atrophy
At this stage in the development of science, there are no effective methods of treating testicular atrophy. The process is considered irreversible. If you identify the cause of this process to correct the hormonal background and prevent progression, all efforts are directed to eliminating the cause that caused the problem.
Vascular pathology uses drugs to improve blood supply and nutrition of tissues - actovegin, trental, pentoxifylline.
Galantamine( nivalin) is used to correct neurohumoral regulatory mechanisms. This remedy often causes allergic reactions, so its use is possible only under the supervision of a doctor and with care.
The emergence of any atrophic process against the background of atherosclerosis is adjusted by drugs to improve the rheological properties of blood( aspirin) and the appointment of a lifelong reception of statins. These drugs regulate the amount of blood cholesterol, reducing its concentration, and prevent further changes in the walls of blood vessels.
When hormone therapy patients usually can not do without glucocorticoids, and all that can be done in this case is to closely monitor the dynamics of the patient's condition. Sharp abolition of hormones can lead to a worsening of the underlying disease. During steroid therapy, chorionic gonadotropin is used to improve the condition and restore the function of the testicle, as well as for the prevention.
With complete testicular atrophy, surgical extraction is recommended to eliminate the effect on the paired organ, as well as avoid cancerous degeneration. An implant is placed on the site of the remote testicle.
Prevention of testicular atrophy should consist in the treatment of chronic diseases, the passage of medical examinations. It should also avoid traumatic injuries to the genitals and, at the first signs of the disease, seek help.Like the article? Share with friends and acquaintances: