• Thyroid gland diseases: symptoms, signs and treatment

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    The thyroid gland is the gland of internal secretion.

    It synthesizes a number of hormones, it is part of the endocrine system, supports the body's homeostasis.

    The thyroid gland consists of an isthmus and two lobes. Its normal weight is from 20 to 65 grams, while the sizes of both lobes depend on the age and sex characteristics. So during pubertal period the gland volume increases, and by the elder age it decreases.

    With regard to the period of pregnancy, iron increases in size. It passes after the expiration of six months or a year after childbirth. In the thyroid gland two iodine-containing hormones are synthesized: triiodothyronine and thyroxine.

    Below we will consider the symptoms of thyroid diseases , which are most common in women and men.

    Thyroid hypothyroidism - symptoms

    Hypothyroidism is a disease that develops due to thyroid hormone deficiency in the thyroid gland. This is the most common thyroid disease. In the extreme form of the disease in adults, myxedema develops, in children and children - cretinism.
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    The main reasons for the appearance of hypothyroidism are the following. Primary hypothyroidism and problems with thyroid hormones are associated with pathological processes in the gland itself. The secondary type of the disease develops due to pathology in the hypothalamic-pituitary system, which controls the functioning of the thyroid gland.

    Hypothyroidism diagnosed at an early age often provokes severe complications. Congenital hypothyroidism must necessarily be correctly treated, otherwise cretinism, problems in the development of the bone and central nervous system is possible. Disease, manifested in adolescence and early childhood, can disrupt the growth and development of the central nervous system.

    Congenital hypothyroidism has the following symptoms: prolonged jaundice, impaired motor activity, constipation, impaired sucking. After that, growth and mental development are delayed, hearing loss occurs, speech and time of its development are disrupted.

    Symptoms of the disease are very diverse and often similar to manifestations of other diseases:

    • sensation of cold and chilliness due to a slowing of metabolism;
    • early manifestations of atherosclerosis, overweight, lower body temperature;
    • myxedema edema: fingerprints in the tongue, puffiness under the eyes;
    • worsening of hearing and nasal breathing;
    • anemia;
    And also:

    1. 1) Dyspnea with active movements and walking, heart enlargement and reduction of contractions, hypotension. Many patients develop atherogenic dyslipidemia.
    2. 2) Deceleration of speaking, apathy, slow reaction, poor memory and drowsiness;
    3. 3) Hair loss and fragility, deterioration of the nails with ugly grooves, dry skin;
    4. 4) Constipation, bloating, dyskinesia, enlarged liver and cholelithiasis;
    5. 5) Problems with the menstrual cycle in girls and women. Both in the male population, and in the female population, the libido decreases. The first often manifest sexual dysfunction. The pronounced form of hypothyroidism almost always causes infertility in women.

    Thyroid hyperthyroidism - symptoms

    Thyrotoxicosis or hyperthyroidism is a syndrome in which the hormonal activity of the thyroid gland increases. Such thyroid hormones as thyroxin and triiodothyronine begin to be produced in excess. Due to the fact that the blood is supersaturated with hormones, all metabolic processes in the body are accelerated. When the first symptoms are recommended, ultrasound, a study of blood hormones and scipigraphy.

    Signs and manifestations of hyperthyroidism at various degrees of the disease are similar, however, they depend on the duration and severity of the disease, the amount of damage to organs and tissues. When the disease appears significant problems from the central nervous system, as well as mental activity:

    • appears excitability and nervous state;
    • desire to cry and irritation;
    • worsening concentration of thoughts;
    • poor sleep;
    • impetuous speech and strengthening of mental processes;
    • is a small-scale tremor.
    When the disease develops sinus tachycardia, flutter and atrial fibrillation, the upper pressure rises and the lower pressure rises. It is also possible the appearance of heart failure. More than 40-45% of patients have problems with the eyes.

    Puffiness of eyelids appears, the eyeball protrudes forward, its mobility is limited. It is also possible to sting and dryness in the eyes, excessive lacrimation is felt. In some cases, blindness is likely due to changes in the optic nerves.

    When the disease appears, the metabolism increases, which is characterized by:

    • weight reduction and increased food requirements;
    • sweating, intolerance to heat, increased body temperature;
    • by the appearance of thyroid-type diabetes;
    • the skin becomes thin and moist;
    • hair quickly turns gray and thin, changes in the nails occur, the soft parts of the shin swell.
    Because of the stagnant phenomenon in the lungs there is a short breath. The patient may have gastrointestinal problems: digestive process, bile formation, frequent and frequent attacks of diarrhea, and appetite increase. Also in severe cases, jaundice and an enlarged liver are possible. Older people can develop anorexia.

    When the disease appears, rapid fatigue and muscle fatigue, weakness and a constant tremor in the body, osteoporosis appears. There may be disturbances in motor activity. Even with simple physical loads - carrying heavy loads, climbing stairs, long walks, patients feel difficult.

    The disease provokes disturbances in water metabolism. There are frequent desires and profuse urination, thirst increases. With hyperthyroidism, there are disorders from the genital area, possibly infertility. Women feel soreness and irregularity of menstruation, they feel weakness, a headache. There may be fainting during the menstrual cycle. Men may suffer from decreased libido and impaired potency.

    Thyroid gland diseases with normal function of

    In addition to diseases associated with increased or decreased hormone content, such pathologies are also possible:

    • Graves' disease;
    • thyroid cancer;
    • nodular goiter;
    • autoimmune thyroiditis;
    • diffuse euthyroid goiter;
    • subacute thyroiditis;
    Typically, patients are concerned about the following symptoms:

    • swelling on the front of the neck;
    • tearfulness and irritability;
    • sweating and dry skin;
    • increase in eyeballs;
    • drowsiness and increased fatigue;
    • brittle nails;
    • obesity;
    • hand tremor.
    • hair loss.
    Today at diagnosis, 5 degrees of determination of thyroid gland enlargement are used:

    1. The first degree - the isthmus of the thyroid gland increases, it is visible during swallowing and when probing;
    2. Second degree - the isthmus and lobes increase. To determine this is easy when probing and see during swallowing;
    3. Third degree - the thyroid gland covers the entire front part of the neck, the neck acquires volume;
    4. Fourth degree - the thyroid gland increases significantly, the shape of the neck changes, and when viewed, the goiter is clearly visible;
    5. Fifth degree - the neck becomes ugly.
    It is extremely important at the first signs of the disease to be examined by a doctor to avoid complications.

    Methods for diagnosing the thyroid gland

    1. 1) Ultrasound of the thyroid gland. Assign with the following symptoms: bulky growths in the neck, nervousness, tearfulness, increased tachycardia, sensation of suffocation, an increase in the thyroid gland, control of the recurrence of diseases. An ultrasound is performed lying down, sometimes sitting. This is the most common procedure for testing the thyroid gland due to its painlessness and the accuracy of the results. Changes in the fabric are fixed by changes in colors.
    2. 2) Analyzes for hormones. Allow at an early stage to see the onset of the disease, check the degree of hormone production and the functioning of the glands. To obtain an accurate result before giving the analysis, patients are advised to prepare: to abandon the increased physical exertion, alcoholic beverages and preparations containing hormones. The analysis requires blood from the vein.
    3. 3) Scintigraphy. The procedure in which radioactive isotopes are used. The method makes it possible to evaluate the functional features of the organ, to reveal the incorrect location of the gland, nodes, developmental anomalies, neoplasms. Scintigraphy is most relevant for the evaluation of nodes.
    4. 4) Biopsy of the thyroid gland. It allows you to determine which cells are common in it: benign or malignant.
    5. 5) Palpation. The simplest and safest way, which is carried out by a specialist. The diagnosis after palpation is usually confirmed by other methods of investigation.
    6. 6) Thermography. The principle of the method is the fixing by means of the apparatus of body temperature and individual parts in infrared radiation. With the help of this study, the malignant nature of the disease is documented.

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