How to classify the degree of hyperopia and treat them
Hyperopia is the pathological process of eye refraction, when the image is focused in the area behind the retina. The disease is provoked by a too short eye axis or insufficient refractive force of the cornea. Often people with this ailment do not complain about the deterioration of visual acuity due to the fact that they have a well developed accommodation process. Also, the process of vision impairment depends on the degree of the disease.
Degrees of development of pathology
The degree of development of hyperopia is classified into:
- Weak degree - visual acuity is not reduced. But sometimes there are difficulties in distinguishing text written in small print, near, also there is rapid fatigue of the eyes with prolonged operation by eyes at close range.
- Medium degree - significant difficulties are noted in the manifestation of any visual activity at close distances, but the vision of the distance remains good.
- High degree( strong) - visual disturbance occurs near and far away.
Causes of the disease
The reasons for the development of hyperopia are usually complex. Only in rare cases it turns out to reveal the only key factor of the disease and even less often the cause of the disease lies in the physiological state of human health.
Hyperopia in children under the age of one year is called congenital and about 85% of all babies suffer from this pathology due to the insufficient size of the eyeball, which did not have time to take the correct shape on its anteroposterior axis. As the child grows up, vision normalizes on his own, so only after four to five years can diagnose acquired farsightedness.
In adults, the disease develops due to pathological processes in the lens, when it loses the ability to refract rays of light over time due to age-related changes. This is the physiological reason for the occurrence of hyperopia. Sometimes it happens that hyperopia after 40 years and the process of change in the lens is supplemented by its turbidity - this indicates the concomitant development of cataracts.
Speaking about the manifestations of this disease, it is necessary to take into account two forms of the pathology pathway: complete and hidden farsightedness. Signs of the development of the disease can be noticed even before the onset of deterioration of visual acuity. They are expressed by strong and fast eye fatigue, headaches and constant dizziness after a long reading.
Over time, the patient has a feeling of pain, especially after a long work with the computer or with documents. Also the pain is accompanied by a burning sensation. But more often people turn to the ophthalmologist only at detection of more obvious signs.
There is an erroneous opinion that when a person develops a long-sightedness, a person can clearly see objects located far away. But as vision deteriorates, both near and distant objects become blurred. Often the pathology is supplemented by astigmatism. At the same time, vision remains vague and spasmodic - from manifestations of nearsightedness to manifestations of hyperopia.
Farsightedness is well treatable in the early stages of its development. Absence of necessary treatment and correction may provoke the occurrence of severe complications. Progressive farsightedness is the cause of inflammation in the eyes, the development of symptoms of the "lazy eye" and glaucoma.
Diagnosis of the pathology
The diagnosis does not cause difficulties - the doctor assumes it is already based on the patient's complaints and a test with a table that helps determine the visual acuity in percent. But to conduct an accurate diagnosis and to determine the degree of hyperopia in order to develop suitable treatment, a comprehensive examination is required.
For this, the following procedures are necessary:
- Refractometry and others.
Only an expert should appoint and organize such a survey. Usually suitable equipment for conducting a survey is available in any clinic.
Treatment of pathology
It is absolutely necessary to treat hyperopia. It is necessary to begin treatment at the early stages of pathology development, until a severe decrease in visual acuity has occurred, and it has not become completely blurred and indistinct. Only 5 - 8% of cases of the disease are incurable and mostly they are related to hereditary deviations in the development of visual organs. For treatment, conservative therapy and specific physiotherapy procedures are performed.
It is impossible to eliminate hyperopia only in therapeutic ways, such methods with proven effectiveness have not been developed. It is especially important to pay attention to the fact that any drops for the eyes will not help to correct vision, and preparations of vitamin complexes can be considered only by the method of preventive treatment.
Surgical intervention in the process of the disease is considered to be the only effective method of completely eliminating farsightedness. The most frequently used and effective methods include the following:
- Replacing the natural clear lens of the eye with artificial ones with the necessary optical properties in a particular case.
- Implantation of lenses inside the eye - into the space between the lens of the eye and its iris. The operation takes about fifteen minutes and does not require subsequent hospitalization. This method is used for serious visual acuity abnormalities.
- Correction with laser techniques - is realized at an average degree of farsightedness. Currently, a large number of effective techniques for conducting an operation are known, and the risk of side effects remains minimal.
It is impossible to completely cure this disease without special correction. Often in the light cases and in the early stages there is enough correction with the help of ophthalmic instruments. The most effective of them are glasses, contact lenses and night lenses.