The norm of protein in the blood and what does it mean to decrease and increase?
Mar 06, 2018
The norm of protein in the blood is in an adult from 45 to 85 grams / liter. And this is a very important indicator for determining a number of serious abnormalities in the body, so its correct definition is of interest to the practitioner.
Human blood consists of a cellular and a liquid part( plasma).Plasma consists of water and some substances - carbohydrates, proteins, cations and anions, as well as molecules of nutrients derived from food, lipids, metabolic products. Proteins account for about 7% of all components of the liquid part of the blood.
Functional value of proteins
The fluctuations in protein level and its indices are of great importance, since protein fractions perform a number of important functions in the body. The total level of the plasma protein is determined mainly by albumins, globulins and fibrinogen, since the remaining protein components are there in small amounts and do not have a determining value for the vital activity of the organism.
Albumins have a low molecular weight and are a reserve for use by vital organs in the absence of nutrient intake( with a strict diet or fasting).In addition, they carry the bulk of nutrients and drugs into organs and tissues. The distribution of toxins and heavy metals also depends on albumins. They are formed by chemical synthesis in hepatocytes.
Globulins have a higher molecular weight and make up almost half of all blood proteins. Their main role is to provide immune protection in response to the introduction of foreign substances and pathogenic microorganisms. They are synthesized by lymphocytes.
Fibrinogen is involved in the main processes of blood clotting.
The general properties of the protein components of the blood are to provide colloid and osmotic pressure. Protein bodies underlie the construction of all cellular and tissue structures of the body.
Reduction of the protein in the blood
In which case is the low protein in the blood determined? Hypoproteinemia does not always occur due to a disease, it can accompany some special conditions.
Thus, in young children, a decrease in the total protein is often observed. It can be during pregnancy, especially in the last trimester, at the mother during breastfeeding, physical exertion, sometimes this phenomenon is promoted by prolonged hypodynamia( lying in bed in heavy patients).This is due either to an insufficient intake of protein in the body, or the presence of a high need for it. Sometimes a decrease in protein is observed due to the intake of certain medications( with estrogen replacement therapy).
The use of excess fluid increases the volume of the plasma due to the water component and causes relative hypoproteinemia. The same condition is noted when there is a violation of excretion of the liquid by the kidneys, severe heart failure, intravenous fluids of solutions.
Absolute decrease in protein is observed in pathological conditions, when its synthesis or absorption is disturbed during the period of liver and digestive diseases, or if its decay and excretion from the body( renal pathology, bleeding, burns, complicated surgical interventions) occurs.
Decrease in protein leads to a decrease in oncotic pressure, and the liquid part of the blood leaves the tissues, causing the appearance of edema. At the same time there is a thickening of the blood, and thrombosis and thromboembolism can occur, leading to the development of heart attacks and strokes.
When does hyperproteinemia occur?
High blood protein is much less common. This happens with dehydration( loss of fluid) during the onset of profuse diarrhea or indomitable vomiting, peritonitis and this indicator is relative.
The increase in protein is due to the excessive synthesis of its pathological fractions in oncopathology, autoimmune conditions and myeloma. Due to the globulin fraction, this phenomenon occurs in a marked infectious process.
During the intake of corticosteroids and corticotropin, the amount of the blood protein can also increase.
An increase in the protein of the blood can lead to a disruption in the supply of tissues, since the necessary substances penetrate the cells worse.
The norm of proteins in the blood is determined by a special biochemical analysis. It is produced in the morning, on an empty stomach. If there is a need to take blood at another time, then a break between him and the last meal should be at least 8 hours.
Absolute reduction in protein has the greatest clinical significance. Most often, with hypoproteinemia, there is a decrease in the albumin fraction. Their optimal level indicates a normal metabolism and a good health status, and insufficiency indicates a decrease in vital forces and a violation of metabolic reactions.
The degree of reduction of this indicator helps to determine the course of some diseases, and often is the first sign of trouble in the body, associated with a violation of protein metabolism.
The effectiveness of the study can significantly affect the intake of food( especially high in fat), exercise, alcohol, drugs, tea, coffee.
The study is applied:
- In the initial diagnosis of any disease.
- To understand the severity of a pathological condition.
- For the purpose of dynamic control during treatment.
- To test reserve forces before conservative treatment or surgery.
- When examining a person for the purpose of prevention.
Before proceeding with the study, you should strictly follow the doctor's recommendations for the preparation of this procedure, as it can be crucial in the diagnosis, preventive examination, or checking the effectiveness of the treatment.Like this article? Share with friends and acquaintances: