Second and third year
Mar 18, 2018
The gradual development of the chewing apparatus requires the introduction of a food of a child over 1 year of solid food of varying degrees of grinding. Still important role belongs to milk and dairy products, which should be included in the daily diet of the child( milk in any form up to 500-600 ml, curd on average 50 g, cream or sour cream 5 g).Cottage cheese, cream, sour cream can be given after 1-2 days, but in an appropriate amount.
Meat products for children older than a year are recommended along with beef chicken, chicken, rabbit, low-fat pork and lamb, a variety of offal. The number of fish increases. On average, a child from 1 year to 3 years old requires 85 grams of meat and 25 grams of fish per day. Within a week, he can receive meat for 4-5 days( 100-120 g) and 2-3 days for fish( 70-100 g each).
A child older than a year can be given a whole egg( in a day, or half a day), not just the yolk. However, this should be done with caution, as in some children, the egg white protein can cause an allergic reaction. In such cases, the protein should be discarded and give only a yolk for a while.
From fat products, we advise giving 12-17 g of butter( for a sandwich, for ready meals) and up to 8-10 g of vegetable oil( for filling salads, vinaigrettes, various vegetable dishes), but not margarine and refractory edible fats( beef,mutton).
Among cereals, oats and buckwheat are most useful, barley, pearl, and wheat are allowed. You can also use specially enriched cereals( "Sports", "Pioneer", "Health").Pasta( noodles, vermicelli) are given infrequently, since they are poor in vitamins and contain an excess of carbohydrates. Legumes( peas, beans, soybeans) are given in limited quantities to children over 1.5 years old in the form of rubbed soups. On average, a child needs 15-20 grams of cereals per day, 5 g of pasta, about 100 grams of bread( including 30-40 g of rye).Bread products( bread rolls, bread rolls, rolls) are also suitable with a corresponding decrease in the amount of bread.
The main source of carbohydrates in the diet of a child older than a year is sugar, but its amount should be strictly limited."Overdose" of sugar can lead to disruption of metabolism, excessive body weight, sometimes to a deterioration in appetite. A child under 3 years of age needs 35 to 50 grams of sugar per day. Confectionery products are allowed pastille, marmalade, fruit caramel, jam, jam, honey( with good tolerability).
The total number of confectionery products should not exceed 10-15 g per day.
In children's food, vegetables, fruits and berries are widely used as the main source of mineral substances and vitamins. Vegetables can be given a wide variety, including radish, radish, green onions, garlic, as well as leafy greens( dill, parsley, sorrel, spinach, lettuce, nettle).On the day the child needs about 120-150 g of potatoes and 200 grams of other vegetables. The daily diet should include fresh fruit, berries( up to 200 g) and juices( 100-150 ml).If there is no fresh fruit, you can use children's canned food, as well as frozen and dry fruits.
Do not forget about the power mode. The child should develop a conditioned reflex to the feeding hours to ensure good secretion of digestive juices and more complete assimilation of food. With erratic feeding, the rhythmic functioning of the digestive organs is disturbed and the appetite decreases.
Up to 1.5 years, the baby is usually still on 5-times feeding, although some children already at this age refuse the last( night) feeding and switch to a 4-meal meal: breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner. Breaks between feedings should be about 4 hours. It is very important to establish regular hours of food intake. Deviations are allowed within 15-30 minutes.
Feeding the baby should not be given any food, especially sweets, as this leads to disturbances in normal digestion and a decrease in appetite. This also applies to fruit juices, which are sometimes offered to a child instead of drinking. In this case, it is better to use neutral or sour juices, as well as unsweetened broth of dogrose.
Ensure that the child receives the volume of food appropriate to his age. So, for a child aged 1 to 1.5 years, it should average 1000-1200 ml, from 1.5 to 3 years - 1400-1500 ml( juices, decoctions and other drinks are not included in this volume).
Reducing the amount of food can lead to malnutrition, excess - to a decrease in appetite. It is especially irrational to increase the volume of the first dish, which parents often do if the child eats soup or broth willingly. However, having eaten a lot of soup, the child can not already cope with the second dish, which, as a rule, is more complete, since it contains meat, vegetables, etc.
Culinary processing of food for young children has its own peculiarities due to the originality of their development. Up to 1.5 years old the kid still does not have enough opportunities for mastering rough food, so he is fed with mashed potatoes, liquid porridge, etc. But the child must be taught to eat more dense food.
If children receive only semi-liquid and rubbed dishes for a long time, they develop a bad chewing skill and subsequently they are very sluggish and reluctant to eat meat, raw vegetables and fruits. Children over the age of 1.5 are given boiled( but no longer wiped) cereals, vegetable and cereal casseroles, stewed vegetables cut into small pieces, meat and fish cutlets. After 2 years, the meat can be given in the form of fried cutlets, finely chopped gad, fish - cooked and fried, freed from bones.
As widely as possible, use fresh vegetables in the form of finely chopped salads, and for children under 1.5 years old - grated on a large grater. Salads from raw vegetables can be given not only for lunch, but for breakfast and dinner.
To preserve the nutritional value of products, it is necessary to strictly follow the rules of their cooking.
Milk can be boiled for no more than 2-3 minutes, not allowing re-boiling. When preparing cereals, vegetable purees, casseroles, milk is added to the already boiled cereals or vegetables. After a thorough mechanical cleaning, cook the meat with a large piece, lowering it into hot water. At the same time, on the surface of the meat, the proteins coagulate and the meat juice does not flow. Fry meat, cutlets should be in boiling fat, which also contributes to the formation of Crust retaining meat juice. Stew is prepared by lightly frying and then boiling in a small amount of water.
It is very important to properly handle vegetables. When cleaning, cut as thin a layer as possible, it is in the upper layers that the greatest amount of vitamins is contained. For vinaigrettes and salads, it is better to cook vegetables in a peel in a small amount of water or a couple. Purified vegetables can not be left in the water for a long time, so that the washing out of vitamins and minerals occurs, and they should be cooked in a small amount of water, then using it for food. The cooking time is strictly limited: potatoes, cabbage, carrots - no more than 25-30 minutes, beets 1-1.5 hours, sorrel, spinach - up to 10 minutes.
Vegetables and fruits for raw salads are cleaned and cut( rubbed) immediately before eating, since when oxygen is applied to purified and ground products, vitamins, especially ascorbic acid, are destroyed in them.
The following articles list the methods of preparation and the formulation of certain types of complementary foods for children of the first year of life and certain dishes for children aged 1 to 3 years.