Hormonal failure symptoms
Mar 04, 2018
For the normal functioning of the cell, it is necessary that its volume and osmolarity of the intracellular fluid are kept within very narrow limits. These parameters are partially regulated through factors that determine the concentration gradient, electrolyte solution( primarily sodium) at the level of the plasma membrane of the cell. Mechanisms that determine the concentration gradient include the passive diffusion of water and some electrolytes through the cell membrane and active ion transport through energy-consuming pumps located in the membrane. The constancy of the cell volume and osmolality is also determined to some extent by the osmolarity of the extracellular fluid, which in turn is regulated by the action of ADH, which affects the distal tubules of the kidneys and determines the excretion of water into the urine.
Normally, the predominant extracellular cation is sodium, which largely determines the osmotic pressure of the extracellular fluid. It depends on the concentration and changes when the relative( rather than absolute) values of the water and sodium content fluctuate.
If the maintenance of osmolarity of the extracellular fluid depended only on ADH, then the volume of blood( plasma volume) would vary within wide limits during the day, as a person consumes sporadically different amounts of water and salts. Because of these fluctuations in the intake of food and water, the relative constancy of the blood volume should be controlled by a whole set of regulatory mechanisms. It is now established that the following systems directly participate in the regulation of the balance of water and sodium in the body.
The main function of these regulatory hormonal systems is to maintain a constant volume of circulating blood through their effect on the movement of sodium and water in the kidneys. These same hormonal systems determine the amount of sodium and water in the extracellular fluid.
Diseases accompanied by a violation of the secretion of hormones that provide homeostasis of sodium and water
Laboratory diagnosis of dysfunctions of hormonal systems regulating the exchange of sodium and water in the body is difficult - in most cases it is necessary to conduct a whole range of studies, the main ones are the following.
The reproductive system consists of certain structures of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonads, target organs( fallopian tubes, uterus, etc.).Elements of the reproductive system are interconnected by information signals, allowing it to function as a single whole.
The most important role in the regulation of the reproductive system is given to hormones. Hormones of the reproductive system are classified according to their chemical structure and place of secretion. Accurate determination of the concentration of these hormones in human biological fluids is extremely important for assessing the functional state of hormonal systems regulating the reproductive system and diagnosing the diseases that cause their disturbance. Determination of the content of hormones is widely used to establish the causes of both female and male infertility, in which in many cases the first place is the violation of hormonal regulation.
Classification of the most important hormones that regulate the reproductive function at the site of their synthesis.
. Hemopoiesis organs are the largest body and activity of the human body, localized mainly in the bones. Approximately 20-30% of the red bone marrow is in the erythropoietic tissue. In a healthy person, the number of circulating red blood cells in the blood is 25-30x1012 cells. Maturing for 12 days erythron cells make 11-12 divisions. The lifespan of red blood cells is 120 days;Every day in an adult human body, 2 x 1011 red blood cells are produced and destroyed.
The functioning of the red bone marrow as an organ ensuring the consistency of Hb concentration and the number of red blood cells in the blood depends on many factors, among which the main role belongs to the presence and concentration of vitamin B12 and folic acid, iron for Hb synthesis, and regulation by specific( cytokines - IL-3, erythropoietin) and nonspecific( androgens) hormones. The central role in the hormonal regulation of erythropoiesis belongs to erythropoietin.
Estimation of hormonal status of the thyroid gland allows revealing its three functional statuses: hyperfunction, hypofunction and euthyroid status. Definition of TTG together with sT4 is one of the leading "strategic" markers in assessing the hormonal status of the thyroid gland.
TTG is considered the most sensitive indicator of thyroid function. An increase in its content in the serum is a marker of primary hypothyroidism, while a decrease or total absence is the most significant indicator of primary hyperthyroidism. The definition of cT4 is most informative in patients with suspected anomalies of binding proteins and allows one to assess the true T4 content in the body.
The joint definition of TTG and cT4 is important for the selection of adequate therapy for identified thyroid dysfunction. The dose of thyroid hormone preparations, which are used in the treatment of hypothyroidism, is selected accordingly by the concentration of TSH in the blood( adequate treatment is accompanied by its normalization).
Definition of CT4 is particularly important for monitoring the treatment of hyperthyroidism, since it may take 4-6 months to restore the function of the pituitary gland. At this stage of recovery, the concentration of TSH in the blood can be reduced, even though the content of cT4 is normal or decreased and the treatment of hyperthyroidism is adequate.
Currently, programs for prenatal diagnosis of Down's syndrome, neural tube defects have been developed. Programs of postnatal screening include early diagnosis of congenital ACS, hypothyroidism.
In winter, our hormonal system functions differently than in the summer, it is in a state of stress. In the cold season, it is important for the body to maintain body temperature. Especially active in the cold is the sympathetic nervous system, that is, the excitatory nervous system, which is activated by stress. To stimulate the metabolism and thereby produce more heat, the adrenal glands in winter, as in a cold shower, in increasing amounts of hormones emit stress, struggle and flight - cortisol, adrenaline and norepinephrine. These hormones provide the body with additional energy reserves. The thyroid gland under cold conditions also begins to intensively isolate hormones in order to flood the body's furnace and maintain body temperature. Under the influence of stress hormones and the thyroid gland, the basic metabolism increases, more calories burned. During a walk in the cold consumes about 50 calories per hour more than in the summer. The "burning of the furnace" costs our body additional vital energy.