Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms
Mar 05, 2018
Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by multiple lesions, an autoimmune disease of unclear etiology, characterized by white matter damage to the brain and spinal cord( demyelination) with the direct involvement of activated T-lymphocytes and macrophages. Genetic factors play an important role in the development of multiple sclerosis. This disease is characterized by the destruction of the myelin layer, which is an external protective covering of nerves within the central nervous system( nerves of the brain, optic nerves and nerves of the spinal cord).The myelinated layer consists mainly of fats;Fats are an isolation for nerves and retain the speed of carrying out nerve impulses. With multiple sclerosis, the heterogeneous regions of the myelin layer are destroyed and replaced with scar tissue. This process is known as sclerosis. How to treat this disease with folk remedies.
Destruction occurs in many places of the central nervous system, from which the name of the disease - diffuse( or multiple) sclerosis - arose. Sclerosis interferes with electrical conductivity, thus reducing or disrupting the transmission of nerve impulses within the affected areas. When the disease reaches a strong stage of development, the axial cylinders of neurons( axopa) can collapse, which is irreversible. Symptoms intensify and weaken suddenly and vary greatly in different patients. For example, sclerosis of the optic nerves can cause visual impairment, and the sclerosis of the nerves that control the muscles can lead to muscle spasticity, weakness, spasms or paralysis. Different symptoms can be observed together and vary greatly with time.
Current views on the pathogenesis of for multiple sclerosis are based on a multifactorial inheritance of the disease, involving the participation of several genetic loci that predispose the development of the disease and external factors. The combination of such effects forms a pathological process - chronic inflammation, autoimmune reactions and demyelination.
Multiple sclerosis is associated with certain alleles of the variable-chain genes of HLA-DR and DQ molecules, which are inherently linked. This haplotype, designated by the International nomenclature as DRB1 * 1501, DQA1 * 0102-DQB1 * 0602, corresponds to the haplotype Dw2 in cell typing. These genes are located on chromosome 6, in patients with multiple sclerosis they are detected in 60%, compared with 20% in the general population.
There is also evidence that a genetic predisposition to the development of multiple sclerosis can be associated with the loci of the Ar-recognition T-cell receptor genes, tumor necrosis factor, variable regions of the heavy Ig chains, as well as the myelin protein genes( myelin basic protein and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein), etc.
The cause of the onset of the disease is unknown;However, recent research indicates that multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks some of its own cells, taking them as foreign bodies. Multiple sclerosis is rare in children and people over 60;The first attack of the disease usually occurs between 20 and 50 years.
Multiple sclerosis has two main forms. In the recurrent form of the disease, which affects approximately 70 percent of patients, a number of seizures are separated by periods of normal or almost normal state. Such periods of well-being can be short or last for months or years. In some cases, recovery comes forever, but many patients progressively develop neurological disorders.
Another type of multiple sclerosis, chronic progressive, gradually increases without periods of improvement. Occasionally the development of the disease is so rapid and strong that the patient can live only a few months or years. In women, the disease is more common than in men. The average life expectancy after diagnosis is more than 35 years, but the destruction of the myelin layer can eventually lead to simultaneous damage to the nerves, muscles and sometimes the brain. However, in many people, the functions of these organs persist for many years, and they are able to lead a normal life using supportive therapy. Treatment is aimed at reducing the frequency and intensity of seizures, easing neurological complications and providing psychological support.
The prognosis for life is mostly favorable.