Periodontal disease and periodontitis symptoms
Mar 05, 2018
Parodontosis( alveolar pyorrhea) is a disease that is based on neurodystrophic processes that lead to destructive changes in the ligament apparatus of the tooth, alveolus and root cement. The process is often accompanied by a reactive inflammation of the gums( gingivitis) with the appearance of dentogingival pockets, suppuration, loosening of teeth, atrophy of the alveolar process due to bone resorption. The process is chronic, develops slowly.
There are 3 stages of periodontal disease.
In the first stage, unpleasant sensations in the gums, burning, itching, and sensitivity disorder are disturbing. Visible changes can not be noted, on the roentgenogram, there is no violation of the alveolar bone structure.
The main symptoms in the second stage are bleeding gums and gingivitis. Gums loosened, gingival pockets appear, where abscesses can develop. Bone tissue of the interdental and inter-root septa is resorbed, which is clearly defined on the roentgenogram in the form of dilatation of the cortical layer of bone at the tops of the septa. The destructive process leads to the mobility of the tooth. There are painful sensations when nibbling.
In the third stage there is atrophy of the gums and alveolar process, which leads to exposure of the necks of the teeth and their progressive mobility.
Functional ability of teeth is sharply reduced, and mechanical loading during chewing aggravates the course of the process and promotes a greater loosening of the teeth, an increase in the gingival pockets. There are periodic exacerbations, pains increase, abscesses develop. On the roentgenogram, almost complete atrophy of the alveolar process is visible. The outcome of the disease can be an independent loss of teeth.
With the development of periodontitis, complications often occur in the form of retrograde pulpitis, periostitis, regional lymphadenitis. Inadequate treatment of food during chewing can cause a violation of the function of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic inflammatory foci with periodontal disease sometimes maintain an allergic and septic state, which is especially dangerous in patients with concomitant diseases.
Treatment of periodontal disease includes activities of a local and general nature. Local treatment is aimed at excluding factors contributing to the development of the pathological process;it is carried out by a dentist( removal of calculus, washing of the gingival pockets with solutions of antiseptics, gum massage, physiotherapy, prosthetics).General treatment provides for an increase in the body's defenses( vitreous injection, vitamins, etc.).Given the progressing periodontal disease, every medical worker is obliged to convince the patient suffering from this disease to begin routine treatment with the dentist. What folk remedies can be used look here.
Periodontitis is an inflammation of the periosteum of the tooth, an inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth, including the gums and dental cells of the upper and lower jaws. The disease begins as gingivitis( inflammation of the gums, usually due to insufficient hygiene of the teeth), which progresses in the absence of treatment. Gingivitis occurs when plaque( a sticky substance consisting of mucus, food particles and bacteria) and tartar( dense deposits consisting of mineralized plaque and saliva) irritates and inflames the gum tissue, causing its gradual destruction. After a while, the gums collapse and small pockets are formed between the gum and teeth. When these pockets become deeper, plaque and stone accumulate in them. Bacteria contained in plaque cause inflammation, which leads to the destruction of bone and ligaments that support the teeth, which leads to the fact that teeth in the nests begin to hold less firmly. Pus is usually formed as the infection develops. In some cases, a severe infection can lead to an abscess formation. Eventually, the destruction of the bone becomes so strong that the teeth begin to stagger. In fact, periodontitis, not caries, is the main cause of tooth loss in adults.
In addition, periodontitis can be the result of acute tooth trauma( stroke) or permanent trauma of it with a pathological bite( periodontitis traumatic).Sometimes periodontitis develops due to getting into the periodontium of any drug used in the treatment of a tooth( arsenic, formalin).
• Periodontitis occurs when gingivitis is not treated, and expansion in the gums affects deeper tissues.
• If the disease is detected early enough, it is possible to completely stop its development by simply removing the plaque and the stone from the surface of the tooth root of the dentist. This procedure may require local anesthesia. Then you need to strictly implement the program for cleaning teeth and using dental floss. Often, periodontal treatment should be performed every three months to maintain the gums in a healthy state. With a stronger development of the disease, an operation may be required in which the tissue is cut and pushed away from the teeth so that the roots and the bone supporting the teeth can be cleaned. Then the skin graft of the gum is sewn into place.
• Sometimes it may be necessary to use a bone graft or a substitute to repair a damaged bone.
• Newly developed polymer beads containing antibiotics that can be inserted into the pocket between the tooth and bone, help stabilize the disease and restore some of the lost bone.
• Free-holding teeth can be attached to other teeth;in some cases, the affected teeth should be removed because of the large destruction of the bone. Dentures or permanent dental implants can be used to replace missing teeth.
Infectious periodontitis, usually a complication of tooth decay, proceeds as an acute inflammatory disease. Serous exudate, accumulating around the tip of the root of the tooth, leads to the fact that the tooth is slightly extended from the hole and becomes painful when nibbling. Especially sharp soreness arises with purulent exudation. Percussion of the tooth gives a characteristic symptom of increased pain. Constant pulsating pains are often intensified when the tongue is touched to the tooth. The tooth acquires mobility, the gum around it is edematic and hyperemic, the regional lymph nodes are enlarged, painful. If there is no outflow of exudate through the root canal, the surrounding tissues can be involved in the inflammatory process, up to the development of phlegmon, osteomyelitis of the jaw.
In case of acute periodontitis - creating conditions for outflow of exudate through the root canal with subsequent application of antiseptic agents and sealing. If treatment is impossible for a specialist, measures must be taken to prevent the development of serious complications( tooth extraction).In the initial stages of periodontitis, symptomatic treatment can be used( antibiotics, analgesics, physiotherapy).
Chronic periodontitis develops as a result of productive inflammation( as a result of acute periodontitis).Distinguish granulating, granulomatous and fibrous forms. Chronic periodontitis is usually asymptomatic, but with granulating form, there are often exacerbations of pain with the characteristic signs of acute inflammation of the periodontal disease. This form gives complications in the form of a fistula gum, hard palate, chin, skin( the fistula localization depends on the causative tooth and the location of its roots).Sometimes the accumulation of granulations under the skin( subcutaneous migrating granuloma) is defined as limited swelling with cyanotic thinning skin resembling a neoplasm. On the roentgenogram, the chronic granulating periodontitis is revealed in the form of a thinning of the bone tissue at the apex of the tooth without clear boundaries, in contrast to the radiographic pattern with granulomatous periodontitis, when the bone defect is seen at the tip of the root with a round shape with clear contours, since the accumulation of the granulation tissue is limited by the connective tissue capsule. The asymptomatic prolonged course of this form of periodontitis can lead to the development of a circumcline cyst. Fibrous form of chronic periodontitis is characterized by the development of connective tissue in periodontium. The course is also asymptomatic. On the X-ray, the periodontal cleft is enlarged. Chronic periodontitis can maintain intoxication of the body and cause allergic reactions.
Chronic forms of periodontitis are to be treated by a dentist;conservative and surgical methods can be used. If special treatment is impossible and in patients with a history of history, when the presence of chronic foci of infection and allergization is especially dangerous, the tooth must be removed.
• Carry out thorough dental hygiene and visit the dentist at least once a year to inspect and clean the tartar.
• Immediately make an appointment with the dentist if you have gum bleeding or loose teeth.