Symptoms of hypothyroidism and its prevention
Hypothyroidism is not a disease as such. This is the state of the body, in which there is a low level of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism indicates a deficiency of the endocrine organ or pathological processes affecting hormonal metabolism.
Why hypothyroidism occurs and how dangerous is this condition
Symptoms of hypothyroidism depend on whether the primary condition is secondary or secondary. With primary hypothyroidism, the production of thyroid hormones decreases. This is due to pathological processes occurring in the gland itself. Primary hypothyroidism can develop in several ways:
- Damaging. Thyroid tissues are damaged by the immune system. This leads to probable traumas temperature, medication, parasitic. All of them negatively affect the body itself;
- Iodine deficiency. Characterized by the shortage of iodine in the human body. This leads to the fact that the thyroid gland can not function properly and produce the necessary amount of hormones;
Primary hypothyroidism is also divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital is characterized by the lack or underdevelopment of the thyroid gland. Acquired occurs after surgery to remove this organ, when exposed to a person of any harmful radiation, under the influence of certain medications.
Secondary hypothyroidism is due to pathological processes in the hypothalamic-pituitary system. That is, the system that controls the functioning of the thyroid gland. Sometimes the cause of hypothyroidism can not be identified. Particularly obvious are the symptoms of hypothyroidism in women. The extreme form of this condition is myxedema disease in adults.
How hypothyroidism manifests itself and how not to be mistaken with the diagnosis of
Primary hypothyroidism has several degrees. In the latent period the disease does not betray itself. It is possible to increase the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. The next stage is the manifest. It is characterized by a decrease in the level of T4 and increased production of TSH.Complicated hypothyroidism is characterized by cardiac insufficiency, cretinism, secondary adenoma of the pituitary gland.
Than at an earlier age the third form of the disease will be diagnosed, the more severe its consequences will be. This is a violation of the development of the central nervous and bone system, the development of cretinism. In this case, the signs of hypothyroidism in women and men of middle and old age are not so dangerous. They are regarded as age-related changes, and not as a serious illness. On the other hand, in adults, complications of this disease such as myxedomatous coma are possible. The lethal outcome with the development of such a complication is 40%.Most often this complication can be found in elderly women who for a long time did not diagnose hypothyroidism and did not treat it properly. Provoking factors to the development of this complication is inactivity and hypothermia, acute infectious diseases, overloads, frequent use of alcohol and sleeping pills.
This is important! In newborns, this disease is manifested by prolonged jaundice, constipation, poor sucking and decreased motor activity. When a child grows, there is a delay in growth, development of speech and mental development.
The main specific symptoms of the disease( although, in most cases, the symptoms are very individual):
- Decreased body temperature. A person feels constant cold, because the metabolism slows down;
- Early atherosclerosis;
- Skin yellowness;
- Swelling around the eyes;Difficulty of nasal breathing and hearing loss, hoarseness of voice;
- Dyspnoea on walking, pain in the heart and behind the sternum with sudden movements;
- Hypertension, cardiovascular insufficiency;
- Hair loss in hypothyroidism, brittle nails;
- Women also have a disorder of the menstrual cycle;
What a doctor and the person can do to prevent the development of hypothyroidism
Treatment of this disease is carried out by an endocrinologist. His task is to ensure the maintenance of hormones in the human body at a level that satisfies his physiological needs. Treatment with hormones is carried out very carefully. Each patient is assigned an individual dose, it depends on the level of cholesterol in the blood, pulse, ECG and a combination of other factors. Treatment, depending on the causes of the disease, can last from several months to several years. In especially severe cases, treatment lasts a lifetime.
Prophylaxis of hypothyroidism, in principle, is impossible. Since this condition is especially dangerous in childhood, then as soon as mom notices any deviations from her baby, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor. Correct and timely treatment will help to eliminate the main symptoms and restore the ability to work.
If the disease occurs due to iodine deficiency, then you do not need to prescribe yourself treatment yourself. This can only harm and even more negatively affect the thyroid gland. With this condition, the most true thing that can be done is to consult a doctor. Because in the matter of hormonal diseases, highly qualified assistance is extremely important.