Therapeutic diet and diet with kidney stones
After the diagnosis of "Urolithiasis" or nephrolithiasis, the main and paramount importance is given to dietary nutrition. In some cases, it is the diet that is the most important component in the recovery of the patient. Although some doctors do not recommend patients to adhere to any diet during the treatment of urolithiasis and believe that it is enough to make only reasonable restrictions in nutrition( minimize the number of fast foods, convenience foods and canned foods).
Nevertheless, according to statistics, after any operations on crushing stones in the kidneys, those people who did not adhere to the bases of dietary nutrition, were repeatedly subjected to surgical treatment in connection with the relapse of the disease.
In addition to reviewing its dietary habits, it is necessary to adjust the daily routine, provide a dosed physical load and eliminate as far as possible all the factors that can lead to stress.
The first thing that an experienced doctor will pay attention to is the drinking regime. It is very important during the day to correctly distribute the amount of liquid being drunk, because it is known that the concentration of urine fluctuates during the course of the day, so at the moments of its greatest concentration, it is necessary to drink more liquid. In general, during the day you need to drink up to 2.5 liters of liquid, and contrary to the usual routine, most of it falls on evening and night.
In this case, the calculation should be as follows: the average increase in the amount of water drunk per day should be half as much as is required by the age norm. The norm of water is as follows - for each kilogram of body weight should be 3 ml of liquid. Drink it before you eat for 20 minutes. However, this rule does not apply to people with concomitant pathology of the cardiovascular system.
Preference can be given to simple mineral water, because taking a long period of acidic drinks can lead to undesirable consequences - increased excretion of calcium. However, a certain amount of acidified or carbohydrate-containing beverages should still be consumed. Among these drinks are usually found - teas from cowberry, lemon, dog rose, cranberries.
But, it should be warned that liquids are selected depending on the pH of the urine. Normally, the urine reaction varies from 6.4 to 6.6.If the patient has alkaline urine( pH more than 7.0), it leads to the formation of phosphate stones, but if the urine reaction is acidic( pH below 6.4), then there is a tendency to oxalate calculi. The reaction of urine can vary from both the eaten food, and the type and amount of liquid drunk. The more liquid is drunk, the less alkaline urine reaction.
Cowberry with kidney stones is often recommended by doctors as a diuretic and antiseptic. Also cowberry has a urolithic effect - dissolves and painlessly removes stones from the kidneys. For this purpose it is recommended to make from it teas or decoctions, both leaves and berries will suit. Cowberry can be brewed as regular tea and drunk with a small amount of honey to eliminate tart taste. It should be borne in mind that cranberries acidify urine.
Also, dog rose with kidney stones is an excellent means for their dissolution and elimination. It is shown with urate( uric acid) stones. To this end, the roots of dog rose, not berries, although they have a mild diuretic effect. Dried roots of rose hips are grinded or finely chopped, then they make a decoction of them - 250 ml will require 4 teaspoons of roots. During the day, you need to drink three times a glass of 1/3 cup. Duration of admission is up to 14 days. If the condition worsens after taking the medication, then a less concentrated broth should be taken, taking 2 teaspoons of roots. Repeat the procedure can be no earlier than a month.
If necessary, acidify the urine, you can use another berries - cranberries, with kidney stones, it not only helps dissolve the already existing ones, but also prevents the formation of new stones. In addition, the cranberry has a diuretic property, improves metabolism and disinfects the urinary system, thereby protecting it from infections. Cranberries are usually used in the form of tea or mors. You can take half a glass of berries, fill them with sugar or honey and crush them. Juice pour hot water and drink during the day for a third of the glass before each meal.
As for such a miracle product as ginger, it is not advisable to use it as a tea with kidney stones - it enhances the processes of stone formation. If you really want to use it, then only as a seasoning in ordinary amounts.
Parsley tea is also recommended for the dissolution of kidney stones. For this purpose, you can use the root of parsley or its leaves - a teaspoon of raw material pour a glass of boiling water and leave to infuse for several hours. It is best to brew it in a thermos. In the future, drink a glass three times a day in small portions.
Lemon tea or simply with the addition of lemon is indicated to those people who have discovered urate. Such tea does not acidify urine and is recommended for daily intake on an empty stomach or before bedtime. Also, lemon tea can be drunk in the intervals between meals.
But for those who have kidney stones for oxalates, so it should be borne in mind that they can not consume juices and eat fresh currants, blueberries and citrus fruits. But such fruits and berries as watermelon, apples pears, plums, dogwood, white grapes are allowed.
The diet should be selected so that it reduces the burden on the kidney.
The general approach to choosing food products is based on several principles:
- It is necessary to limit those products that promote the formation of stones or leave a residue;
- The choice of products should take into account the acid-base reaction of urine.
The diet is always based on the type of stones in the kidneys, the total metabolism and the existing concomitant diseases. It is not recommended to stay on medical food for a long time, in particular with urate and phosphate calculi, since this type of food is depleted of certain substances, while others are too numerous. Thus, the body can lose important nutrients and this leads to the development of stones of a different nature.
In general, the products can be divided into:
- Alkali - lemon, milk, tomatoes, carrots, spinach, apricots, beets;Weak-alkaline - cherries, apples, cranberries, bananas, cabbage, beans, mushrooms;
- Oxidizing - meat and offal, cheese, cheese, rice, oatmeal;
- Slightly acidic - eggs, sour-milk products, sour cream, fish, millet, bakery products;
- With a reduced number of oxalates - cabbage and potato dishes with the mandatory exception of rich broths, chocolate products, coffee, cocoa, cranberries, beets, carrots, black currant, dogrose, sour apples.
It should be remembered that excessive drinking load is contraindicated in cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases( diabetes, obesity, thyroid disease), attention must also be paid to the choice of dishes with concomitant renal pathology - chronic nephritis or bilateral pyelonephritis.
Therapeutic diet is prescribed only after the dynamics revealed a predominance of some type of concrements and a tendency to a certain pH in the urine. In other cases, the diet may be either unjustified, or harm and stimulate the enhancement of stone formation. In addition, it should be borne in mind that most of the stones are polymorphic and have several kinds of crystals in their composition, so the prescribed diet should take this moment into account. Optimum is the appointment of a diet only after repeatedly confirmed urine pH.Perhaps this explains the recurrence of the disease.