What is dangerous is the pelvic dystopia of the kidney
An abnormal arrangement or dystopia is a violation of the topography of one or both kidneys, as a result of which the organ is displaced above or below its original position. The incidence of this disease is one for 800-1000 newborns of both sexes.
Species and classification of
Dystopia occurs as a result of abnormal rotation and displacement of the kidney from the pelvis into the lumbar region. It is classified according to the level at which the displacement of the kidney ceased:
- is a thoracic( a special kind of abnormal location that arises from excessive kidney migration).
Dystopia is also one-sided( homolateral) or bilateral.
Two-sided is much less common, but most often it is crossed. Cross is characterized by the fact that the ureter from the left kidney empties into the bladder to the right and vice versa.
Pelvic kidney dystopia is less common than sacroiliac, but is more clinically significant due to the variety of its manifestation. In turn, the pelvic dystopia of the right kidney is diagnosed more often than the left one. The renal arteries, with the pelvic location of the kidney, extend from the internal iliac artery, and not from the aorta. The kidneys in this anomaly are located in the douglas space in women( between the rectum and the uterus), and in men between the bladder and rectum. A distinctive feature of pelvic dystopia of the kidney is a shortened ureter.
How does the disease manifest itself?
Due to the characteristic location of the kidney, the following complaints can occur in patients: aching pain in the lumbar region, menstrual irregularity, periodic constipation, blunt abdominal pain, nausea, dysuric disorders, increasing toxicosis in pregnant women, pain in women during intercourse.
All these symptoms can develop without pathological changes in the dystopic kidney. The development of symptoms is related to the pressure that the kidney has on the surrounding organs and tissues( sympathetic pelvic plexus, iliac arteries and veins, rectum, bladder, uterus and appendages).Also, one-sided pelvic dystopia of the kidney can be mistakenly accepted as a volume formation, for example, an ovarian tumor.
The variety of manifestations of pelvic dystopia of the kidneys makes it necessary to conduct multiple laboratory and instrumental methods of investigation.
Research methods used for diagnosis:
- Patient examination. When rectal( in men) and vaginal examination, it is possible to detect a dense sedentary formation, which is located in men between the bladder and rectum, and in women in the rectum-uterine space.
- When examining radiography of pelvic organs, a shadow of the wrong kidney can be detected.
- Ultrasound examination. In the ultrasound picture, the kidney can be rounded, flattened or lobed. The kidney gates are facing anteriorly. The pelvis may be absent altogether or have the same vertical and horizontal dimensions. Unlike the lowered kidney, a short ureter and much smaller vessels are clearly distinguishable.
- Excretory and retrograde urography allows to determine the type of dystopia, the architectonics of the displaced organ, the presence or absence of urodynamic disorders.
- MRI.It allows to specify the location of the kidney, to evaluate its structure and interaction with other organs.
- Renal angiography allows the identification of topographic changes in its vessels.
- Laboratory tests allow you to evaluate the concentration and excretory functions of the kidneys.
Diagnosis of pelvic dystopia of the kidney is performed to identify pathological changes in the displaced organ, as well as for differential diagnosis with other diseases( omission, pelvic neoplasms and others).
Treatment of the disease
Treatment procedures for abnormal kidney location are divided:
Conservative treatment is aimed at excluding the development of infection in a dystopic organ, preventing the formation of kidney stones or their timely removal.
Surgical treatment is necessary in cases of complication of pelvic dystopia by hydronephrosis, kidney trauma. In rare cases, surgery is necessary - nephrectomy( at the terminal stage of chronic renal failure).