What is refractory glaucoma treated for?
Refractory glaucoma is one of the varieties of glaucoma that is characterized by resistance to drug treatment and is caused by anatomical features of the structure of the eye.
This species develops due to the presence of some anatomical features. These changes lead to increased production of intraocular fluid, as well as obturation of the channel providing its outflow. All these processes, in the final analysis, cause gross disturbances in the outflow of eye moisture, its accumulation and subsequent increase in intraocular pressure.
Clinical picture of the disease
Symptomatology will be manifested by increased eye fatigue, a feeling of pressure and fullness in the eyes, a painful eyeball. Before the eyes can occur such phenomena as the shroud, rainbow circles that appear when you look at a bright light source.
The most important symptom is a decrease in vision, starting from the peripheral field and gradually spreading over its entire area. In the future, with the involvement and compression of the optic nerve, a complete loss of vision occurs!
Diagnostic search for this type of glaucoma
The diagnosis of "refractory glaucoma" takes into account complaints of patients on:
- feeling of pressure in the eyes;
- sensation of tears, foreign body in the eyes;
- black flies before the eyes;
intraocular pressure determination data using:
- Tonometry according to Maklakov or daily tonometry;
- palpatory definition.
results of anterior chamber examination by means of:
- of the Vurgaft method.
data from the study of peripheral vision using:
results of biomicroscopy and ophthalmoscopy.
But in order to diagnose refractory glaucoma, it is necessary to make sure that the current medical treatment does not have any effect!
Treatment and therapy
As already mentioned, this form is characterized by resistance to ongoing conservative treatment.
Ineffectiveness of traditional treatment is determined by:
- increased scarring;
- by a strong progression of the process, for example, neovascularization.
When choosing a method, the following classification is based on the degree of refractoriness:
- I degree of refractoriness, which covers the following cases: far gone, pseudoexfoliation to glaucoma, disease in persons under 50 years old, lack of clinical result after fistulizing operations.
- II degree of refractoriness, which includes primary operated glaucoma, juvenile, aphakic, uveal.
- III degree of refractoriness, combining repeatedly operated glaucoma, neovascular, iridocorneal syndromes, uveal glaucoma with signs of neovascularization.
The method of choice in the treatment of glaucoma I degree of refractoriness is sinustrabeuklektomiya, which refers to the fistulizing methods. The effectiveness of this method is 80-90%.And such modern modifications of traditional treatment as autodrenation of the filtration zone, tunnel sinustrabecectomy, sinustrabecectomy with additional stitching of the scleral bed increase the effectiveness to 95%.The second technique, which is used in this group, is the implantation of valvular hydrogel drainage, which facilitates the outflow of intraocular fluid.
In the treatment of glaucoma with grade II refractoriness, traditional sinustrabecectomy is effective in 60-80% of cases. The operation of choice in such patients becomes cryopexy of the ciliary body and retina.
Glaucoma III degree of refractoriness is treated by a combination of the method of implantation of valvular hydrogel drainage with the method of cyclodestruction.