Headache with glaucoma: analgesics are powerless
With farsightedness, nearsightedness, or other types of visual impairment, the headache is quite common. With the pathology of the visual analyzer, it makes itself felt even in childhood and arises after a long reading or watching TV, visiting a movie theater. The most characteristic localization for this type of pain is the bridge of the nose, between the eyebrows, and the forehead.
Mechanism of developing a headache with glaucoma
Most often, cephalalgia begins with the frontal areas, then covers the whiskey, and in particularly severe cases it can reach the neck and even the neck. The nature of pain is aching, throbbing, dull.
In fact, the headache of eye origin arises from the redefinition of the orbital nerve( the upper branch of the trigeminal nerve) and its endings, which are in the muscles of the eye. Because of the pathology of the visual analyzer, the muscles are in constant tonus and tension, they gradually get tired and signal it with the help of pain.
The muscles of the temporomandibular region are in constant tension, they also get tired, pain receptors become irritated and cephalgia occurs.
In addition, the increased intraocular pressure contributes to the painful sensations. A persistent aching pain in the orbit can gradually widen its boundaries and move to the forehead and along the entire length of the trigeminal nerve - on the entire front part of the head.
With glaucoma, the headache can be very intense, paroxysmal, almost uncontrollable analgesics, can intensify at night with a low head of the bed. In addition, cephalgia can cause increased drinking, prolonged exposure in a darkened room, lifting weights, improper instillation of eye drops.
Favorite places of its localization are frontal-ophthalmic, temporal and parietal zones, most often it predominates from the side of the affected eye, if the process is bilateral, it covers the entire front part of the head. In the absence of attacks, the pain stops or is insignificant.
Contrary to popular belief, not all of the head structures can feel pain. For example, skull bones are not susceptible to pain - they do not have corresponding receptors. Also deprived of sensitive innervation of the parenchyma of the brain, the soft dura mater. But the arteries, veins, venous sinuses, the dura mater, the skin, the muscles and the periosteum are very susceptible to pain stimuli, that's why they are the sources of the headache.
How to remove a headache with glaucoma
It should be clearly understood that the headache with glaucoma signals an increase in intraocular pressure. Therefore, normalizing the pressure in the eye, the patient will automatically get rid of cephalalgia. Headache most often occurs with closed-angle glaucoma, when there is an excessive accumulation of moisture in the anterior chamber of the eye, but can be observed in an open-angle form.
In addition, a sharp headache can be caused by the onset of an acute angular glaucoma attack and then, in addition there will be sharp pain in the eyes, weakness, sweating, nausea, vomiting. In some cases, the pain can radiate into the chest, and even the stomach. Without emergency therapy a person can lose his eyesight forever.
Among the drugs that are used to treat glaucoma, the main place is occupied by means that normalize intraocular pressure.
- Myotics - improve the outflow of moisture from the chambers of the eye. These include pilocarpine in drops, membranes or films.
- Beta-blockers - timolol, betaxalol, maleate, proxodolol, niolol, etc. These drugs reduce the formation of watery moisture and improve its outflow from the eye, some drugs have a protective effect against the optic nerve. Preparations of this group are convenient because they can be digested only a few times a day.
- Adrenergic drugs - inhibit the production of intraocular fluid and improve the drainage function of the eye. This group includes adrenaline, oftan-dipivefrin.
- Diuretics, inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase - diacarb. His ability to reduce the production of intraocular fluid and reduce pressure in the eye found application in acute attacks of glaucoma. Diakarb for half an hour is able to reduce the intraocular pressure and exert its effect for almost 12 hours.
For a faster effect, a combination of pilocarpine and adrenaline( adrenopilocarpine) or pilocarpine with timolol( fotil, fotil-forte) is used. These funds can serve as emergency response drugs in case of an attack of acute glaucoma, when the headache is at its peak and urgent measures are needed within the next few hours.
In addition to drug therapy, authorial techniques, folk methods of struggle, both with headache and with the whole complex of manifestations in glaucoma have been developed. In addition, various surgical methods for correcting intraocular pressure have been developed and are quite successful. Well-proven operations: peripheral iridectomy, iridocycloreutraction, as well as many variations of non-penetrating and penetrating surgical interventions, for example, using a laser.