Atrophy of the eye and its individual structures, signs, causes, treatment
Atrophy of the eye is a serious enough problem, especially when you consider that more than half of the information a person receives thanks to the visual analyzer.
Atrophic changes occur in the organs of vision according to the same principle as in all others. Infringement of a trophic by change of a blood flow and innervation of any body leads to destruction of cells and the termination of performance of their physiological functions.
Dystrophic changes refer not only to the eyeball itself. The violation of the perception and analysis of information obtained by the visual pathway can occur when the pathological process affects any part of it. And atrophy can occur isolated, only in one, separately taken, structure. An example of atrophic changes in the non-cellular structure can occur violations in the lens. However, its size does not change, but the optical function suffers.
The optic nerve
Atrophy of the optic nerve is the death of its fibers. The reasons for this may be as follows:
- Diseases associated directly with the eye, including vascular disorders, neuritis, pigmentary degeneration of the reticular membrane.
- Diseases of the brain( traumatic lesions, tumors, inflammatory processes, multiple sclerosis).
- Toxic effects of the substance.
- Vascular pathologies( hypertension, atherosclerosis).
- Diseases associated with viral or microbial infection.
The manifestation of the defeat of the optic nerve and the diagnosis of
. For such a disease, characteristic signs are: a decrease in the quality of sight with the fall of its individual fields, pain when moving the eyeballs, and sometimes the perception of color is distorted.
To clarify the diagnosis apply a standard test of visual acuity, examination of the fundus, evaluate the perception of colors and field boundaries. Additional methods for clarifying the nature and degree of atrophic changes in the optic nerve are video-ophthalmography and computer perimetry. A sighting study of the Turkish saddle on the x-ray of the skull, as well as CT and MRI, is also conducted. Occasionally, a doctor can prescribe laser dopplerography.
Modern methods of treatment of
Treatment of atrophy of the optic nerve consists in the maximum restoration of the function of individual fibers. For this purpose, magnetostimulation is used. The technique is concluded in the effect on the structure of the eye using an alternating magnetic field. This allows to improve the trophic processes in the nerve fibers, to increase the supply of blood to them and to accelerate the repair.
One of the methods of treating atrophy is electrical stimulation using certain impulses. To do this, one of the electrodes is inserted behind the eyeball with a special needle, and the second one is placed on the surface of the skin. Carrying out such a technique requires patience and time, as it must be repeated every three months, and the course of treatment is three weeks. There are the most modern technologies in which the process of such treatment is simplified as much as possible - for several years an implant of a miniature size is introduced into the eye.
In addition, a general strengthening course is prescribed, which involves taking tablets. These include B vitamins, agents for improving blood circulation and normalizing the rheological properties of the blood.
Aetiological treatment implies elimination of the cause of atrophic changes.
Visual disturbances associated with dystrophic changes in the optic nerve often occur at a young age. Any method of treating this pathology can be effective only at the initial stages. Therefore, it is very important to immediately turn to the ophthalmologist and prevent the development of complete dystrophy.
Retinal atrophy is an irreversible violation of the integrity of this structure with concomitant visual impairment. This process in most cases is the cause of visual impairment in old age.
Most often, this pathology affects people who are diagnosed with nearsightedness,
. Varieties and signs of
Retinal atrophy can be central and peripheral. Central atrophy is diagnosed quite easily, because with it a person's central vision is disturbed while maintaining the peripheral vision. This leads to the fact that the patient becomes unable to write or read. Peripheral atrophy for a long time goes unnoticed, since only peripheral vision is disturbed.
The disease is congenital and acquired. Congenital forms include pigmentary dystrophy, in which twilight vision is impaired, and point-white. Acquired disease, as a rule, is found in old age and is combined with cataracts.
How to treat retinal atrophy
A complete restoration of vision with retinal atrophy at this stage in the development of medicine is impossible. But in the early stages of the process, methods for eliminating complications are applied. To do this, use laser cauterization of the most vulnerable sections of the mesh shell. Such treatment helps to strengthen this structure and prevent its detachment.
Photodynamic therapy, injections using various drugs to stop the progression of destruction, as well as to improve the blood supply to the retina are also used.
Atrophy of the eyeball is to reduce its size, and can be accompanied by deformation of the eye.
Clinical signs of the disease can be very different, the changes consist in the appearance of scars in all structures and refractive media.
The treatment of this pathology at all stages is the application of conservative methods. If there is no effect, enucleation of the eye is recommended.Like the article? Share with friends and acquaintances: