The causes of glaucoma of different types, the development of the disease. What is dangerous for this condition?
Glaucoma is a disease of the eye, for which a characteristic feature is increased intraocular pressure, causing degenerative-dystrophic processes in the optic nerve and visual impairment. The causes of glaucoma are not fully understood, but it is proved that this disease is multifactorial, that is, for its occurrence a combination of several reasons is necessary.
How does glaucoma develop?
In order to understand how this disease develops, it is necessary to consider in more detail the anatomical structure of the eye cavity. The cavity itself consists of anterior posterior chambers in which watery moisture circulates, as well as the vitreous and crystalline lens.
The liquid that circulates between the two chambers of the eye acts as a power source for all internal tissues of the eye and participates in the metabolic processes. In the eye there is a ciliary body that produces an intraocular fluid that first accumulates in the posterior chamber of the eye, and then most of it flows into the anterior chamber, along the way washing the lens.
In the corner of the anterior chamber of the eye there is a special drainage system through which the fluid passes and enters the venous sclera system. In this way, about 95% of the entire liquid is drained, and the remaining 5% are evacuated from the chambers of the eye, passing through the processes of the ciliary body also into the venous system.
The causes of glaucoma are found in the imbalance between the amount of incoming and outgoing fluid. Basically, the fluid leaves less, which causes an increase in intraocular pressure. If the pressure rises periodically, the symptoms of glaucoma and decreased vision occur gradually. In the case of a persistent increase in pressure, the drainage channels are cut off, through which liquid must flow.
Types of glaucoma and their causes
Glaucoma is congenital( in young children), juvenile( in adolescents) and acquired, arose against the background of pathology of other organs and systems. In addition, among all cases of glaucoma, it is customary to isolate the primary glaucoma and its secondary form.
- Congenital form refers to the rare pathologies of newborns and can be caused by various diseases or fetal trauma during passage through the birth canal. The occurrence of pathology is affected by factors such as infection in the mother, diseases of the nervous and endocrine system, the state of vitamin deficiency, trauma during pregnancy( traumatic glaucoma), alcohol intake, exposure to radiation, poisoning with chemicals. Such diseases in the mother as rubella, parotitis, poliomyelitis, thyrotoxicosis, typhoid fever, syphilis often leave a mark on the health of the child.
- A juvenile form that occurs in the adolescent and in the age of children from 3 years of age. The maximum age for this form of glaucoma is 35 years. With glaucoma disease, the consequences are caused by almost the same causes as congenital, but already in children after their birth.
- Primary glaucoma, which occurs most often in adults and its appearance is associated with age-related changes in the eye. This form of glaucoma is considered by ophthalmologists more often than other forms, since it is more common than other forms of the disease.
Secondary form of the disease is less common in the primary, and is a consequence of the disturbance of other mechanisms in the eyes that are involved in the circulation and outflow of intraocular fluid from the eye cavity.
Causes of the development of the primary form of the disease
As already mentioned, for the emergence of glaucoma and increased intraocular pressure, a combination of several factors is necessary simultaneously. Therefore, in the cause-and-effect mechanism of the disease, factors that can provoke glaucoma can be identified.
- The heredity factor and genetic predisposition.
- Anomalies of the eye cavity and individual features of the structure. Heart Disease and Major Vessels.
- Nervous system disorders.
- Diseases of the endocrine system( diabetes, thyrotoxicosis and others).
- The presence of bad habits and physical inactivity.
The mechanism of the pathological process can be divided into several stages, which include:
- First, there are reasons why the mechanism of outflow of aqueous humor from the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye is disturbed.
- Then the pressure in the eyeball rises, which exceeds the normal values.
- The process of blood supply to the eye is disturbed.
- Because of the lack of oxygen and nutrients in the optic nerve, degenerative-degenerative processes begin.
- Nerve compression and its ischemia lead to the death of nerve endings.
- Vision is impaired due to atrophy of the optic nerve and the onset of optical neuropathy.
The danger of the development of the reasons is that you never know at what time all factors that cause glaucoma can be combined into one. The trigger mechanism for the development of the disease can be sudden stress or infection, for example. But if a person already had bad habits before, led a wrong way of life and had diseases of other organs, the risk to acquire glaucoma is significantly increased.
In this case, the emergence of an acute attack of glaucoma and failure to provide medical care within 4-5 hours can lead to a catastrophe - sudden loss of vision and blindness. Treatment is conducted with the help of conservative and operational methods. Glaucoma after surgery, while observing all the rules of treatment and prevention, usually does not give a relapse.