Angiopathy of the retina according to the hypertonic type: the cause and symptomatology

  • Angiopathy of the retina according to the hypertonic type: the cause and symptomatology

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    It is known that vision is the main of the human senses. With the help of vision, we learn the world, preferring to "see once".This is the cause of fear of the dark: after all, we can not see what it is hiding, which means that we do not feel protected. Therefore, it is so important to take care of eye health: seen at an early stage of the disease is much easier to cure than trying to heal at least a little "neglected".

    Retinal angiopathy according to the hypertonic type is a change in the vessels of the retina seen in people who have suffered from hypertension for a long time. The most frequent occurrence of hypertensive angiopathy of the retina of both eyes. Angiopathy manifests itself in children and adults, but more often from this ailment affects middle-aged people, that is, over 35 years old. It also occurs in pregnant women - usually after 6 months.

    The cause of the development of the disease

    In fact, hypertensive angiopathy of the retina is one of the complications of hypertension, along with myocardial infarction and stroke. Because of the constantly high blood pressure, vascular damage occurs: it is known that in patients with hypertension, the pressure in the eye artery is normalized 3 times slower than in a healthy person, and the vascular enlargement takes 2-5 times longer.

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    Stages of hypertensive angiopathy

    In the development of hypertensive angiopathy of the retina, there are 3 stages:

    1. The first stage is characterized by impaired blood circulation due to narrowing of the veins and expansion of the arteries. Changes at this stage can be seen only when examining the fundus.
    2. In the second stage, the walls of the vessels become denser, which leads to a disruption of the blood supply to the retina. The changes become more noticeable: the veins expand and branch, there is a gloss of blood vessels due to compaction of the walls, swelling of the retina;hemorrhages are frequent.
    3. The third stage, called angioretinopathy, is characterized by a critical disturbance in blood circulation, the formation of exudate( a fluid containing proteins, minerals, microbes, erythrocytes, causing inflammatory processes) at the bottom of the eyeball, as well as aggravation of changes in past stages and risk of complete loss of vision. Therefore, such a disease as hypertensive angiopathy is best treated timely, without leading up to this stage of development.

    Diagnostic measures

    Hypertensive angiopathy of the retina is diagnosed by an ophthalmologist when examining the fundus. In the place where the optic nerve enters the retina, a small spot forms, in a normal state, round or oval.

    With angiopathy due to the nerve edema, this spot loses its shape, its edges become uneven. The blood supply system changes. As already mentioned above, the arteries narrow, because of which many patients complain about the fluttering of "flies" before the eyes and narrowing the field of view.

    Clinical picture of the disease

    With angiopathy of the retina, the following symptoms are observed:

    • slight deterioration of vision. Despite the fact that the changes in the second stage are already significant, the vision remains quite long;
    • periodic blurred vision - due to differences in blood pressure as under the influence of special drugs;
    • appearance on the eyes of fatty spots - deposits of yellow color( Gist's symptom), branched blood vessels, hemorrhages;
    • in the third stage there is a significant deterioration in vision, up to blindness;
    • nasal bleeding;
    • gastrointestinal bleeding is possible;
    • is progressive myopia;
    • pain in the legs.

    How is the treatment performed?

    At present, due to timely diagnosis and new methods of treatment, it has become possible to eliminate eye diseases previously considered incurable. Despite the serious changes taking place even at the initial stages, hypertonic angiopathy of the retina is eliminated quite simply: it is enough to eliminate the manifestations of hypertensive disease, and the condition of the fundus is soon normalized.

    Treatment of hypertensive angiopathy of the retina is carried out by an ophthalmologist, consultation with a cardiologist and therapist is also necessary. The main task is to reduce the pressure and maintain it in the norm. Most often in the treatment prescribed medication: pills and vitamins( "Lutein", "Anthocyan Forte"), eye drops( "Taufon", "Emoxipin").If the fragility of blood vessels is observed, calcium dobesilate is most often prescribed - it helps normalize vascular permeability and microcirculation. In some cases, laser treatment, acupuncture or magnetotherapy are prescribed to improve the general condition of the patient. In complex cases of retinal angiopathy, for example, at the stage of angioretinopathy, homodialysis is prescribed for the purification of blood.

    An important role in the treatment of angiopathy is the reduction of cholesterol. For this, the patient must follow a diet prescribed by a cardiologist and therapist. Basically, it involves the rejection of fatty foods( sausages and smoked products, fat, fatty meat and poultry), reducing the amount of salt( the norm is 5 g per day) and the consumed liquid( up to 1.5 liters, including soups and drinks, teas, juices, etc.).

    To reduce the burden on the heart and blood vessels, you should give up coffee and strong tea, as well as bad habits( smoking, drinking alcohol).The menu must include fresh vegetables, fruits and berries, lean meat, cereals and dairy products.

    Treatment of angiopathy with folk remedies

    In the treatment of hypertensive angiopathy, folk remedies can help. First of all, you should clean the vessels of unnecessary "accumulations": cholesterol plaques and salt deposits. This will help decoction of fruits of mountain ash or black currant, infusion of fennel seeds and fresh parsley juice. Well-established different types of phytogens:

    • Yarrow( 50 g), melissa leaves and rhizome valerian( 15 g each) to grind.2 tsp.the mixture is poured into 1 tbsp.water, insist 3 hours in a cool place. Then boil for 15 minutes in a water bath, cool, filter. For the day you need to drink 250 ml.broth. Duration: 3 weeks.
    • St. John's wort and chamomile in equal quantities - 100 g. 1 tbsp.l.the mixture is poured into 500 ml.boiling water, insist 15-20 minutes, filter. Half of the broth should be drunk in the evening( eat and drink after this is forbidden), the second half - in the morning, on an empty stomach. So repeat until the cooking is over.
    • Infusion of mistletoe white: 1 tsp. Ground mistletoe is flooded with 1 tbsp.hot water, insist in the thermos during the night. Drink cooked infusion needs 2 times a day for 2 tablespoons.l.within 3-4 months.

    Do not forget that before using these phytospores, you should consult your doctor.

    Prevention of this ailment

    Despite the relative ease of treating angiopathy at an early stage, it is better to avoid the disease itself, paying little attention to some preventive measures.

    The main thing is to correctly distribute the load on the eyes during the day. When working at a computer or watching TV programs, it is advisable to take a short break every hour, perform exercises developed by specialists. When working with a PC, you can also use special glasses. This will help reduce the strain on the eyes and protect them from dryness and fatigue.

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