How is myopia manifested in children and what methods to take to treat it?
Myopia( myopia) is one of the most common diseases of the visual system.
A person suffering from myopia, poorly sees distant objects. In most cases, the cause of this is the lengthening of the eyeball, as a result of which the image is projected not on the retina of the eye, but on the area in front of it.
This article describes the causes of myopia in children, methods of treatment and prevention.
Today, myopia can rightfully be considered a "youthful" disease. This disease is most often found in children aged 8 to 12 years, and in adolescence, it is increasing.
Myopia in adolescents in recent years has acquired a truly frightening scale - according to statistics, myopia is affected by every third child aged 14 to 15 years. The visual acuity is stabilized, usually at the age of 18 to 25 years.
Factors affecting the development of myopia in a child
Myopia in children may occur for one of the following reasons:
- Hereditary predisposition. First of all, the children of parents with short-sightedness are at risk. And not inherited as a disease, but a predisposition to its development is inherited, due to the weakness of the eye tissue, which can be stretched during the growth of the eye.
- Congenital malformations of the eyeball. Myopia in children can develop due to congenital pathologies of the cornea or lens, and also due to congenital glaucoma.
- Increased visual load. The child's visual system is largely different from the adult's visual system. Absolute majority of children( more than 90%) have hyperopia at birth, also called "farsightedness reserve".This stock is designed to compensate for the subsequent growth of the eyeball, which stops at 14 - 16 years. To focus the view on closely located objects( for example, on a computer monitor), the child is forced to strain certain eye structures. These actions are completely reflexive and do not depend on his consciousness. As a result of prolonged stress and focusing of sight on small moving objects, the mechanisms of myopia( growth) of the eyeball can be activated, which in turn will lead to the development of myopia.
- General health of the child. Myopia in children can develop under the influence of a disease that is not directly related to the organs of vision. That is why for the prevention of myopia it is extremely important to treat all childhood diseases in time from scoliosis to tonsillitis.
- Defective food. The lack of magnesium, calcium, zinc, essential vitamins is quite capable of causing myopia development in children.
- Improper workplace equipment and posture at the desk. Among other things, the development of myopia is largely due to the lack of good coverage of the child's workplace, matched not by the growth of furniture, incorrect posture.
Treatment of a disease in children
How to treat myopia in a child? To give an answer to this question, it is first of all necessary to determine at what stage the disease is located.
First, there is a so-called temporary or reversible myopia. The first and main feature of it is the deterioration of vision in the distance. The child has to screw up his eyes to view distant objects, tilt his head low when reading textbooks or other books, he has complaints about fast eye fatigue.
At this stage, further development of the disease can be prevented, for which it is necessary as early as possible to seek help from a specialist.
Measures to prevent the development of nearsightedness at this stage may include:
- special gymnastics for the eyes;
- therapeutic exercise;
- vitamin therapy.
If for any reason the first stage of the disease has been missed, myopia becomes true. At this stage, correction of myopia with glasses or contact lenses is practiced.
Correction of vision prevents the development of the disease and aggravation of its manifestations, such as, for example, damage to the retina. Owing to glasses and contact lenses, the excess length of the eyeball is compensated, the image of individual objects is projected onto the retina of the eye, as a result of which the visual acuity is normalized.
It should be remembered that as the child grows, his eyes grow, which requires changes in vision correction. Therefore, the ophthalmologist should be visited regularly.
In severe cases, more radical therapies are required, including surgical intervention. As a result of scleroplastic operations, the pathological growth of the eyeball stops and a progressive loss of vision is prevented.
The surgical methods for controlling myopia include laser treatment for myopia. Its essence lies in the optical effect on the cornea of the eye, as a result of which its shape changes, and the image begins to focus, as it should, on the retina of the eye.
Laser vision correction is a quick, effective and painless procedure that provides a minimum recovery period and a lasting effect. However, it can be carried out only after reaching the age of majority.
Parents should remember that the children's room should be well lit. Attention requires a pose in which the child sits at the desk: the trunk should be placed vertically, the head is slightly tilted forward, shoulders should be parallel to the table.
And, of course, you need to strictly monitor the amount of time that the child spends on the computer or on the TV screen.