Why does strabismus occur in children?
Strabismus in children is manifested as a deviation in the direction of one or both eyes when looking at the subject. For the appearance of a normal volumetric image, it is necessary that both eyes provide the same information.
With strabismus such a fusion is not formed, the image is twofold. Therefore, the nervous system turns off the sore eye, the "lazy eye" effect begins and the vision begins to fall. If the school does not correct this pathology, then it is possible to develop a significant reduction in visual acuity.
Why strabismus develops
The causes of strabismus in children can be as follows:
- eye diseases( myopia, farsightedness, astigmatism);
- intoxication and poisoning;
- birth injury, intrauterine fetal hypoxia;
- diseases of the nervous system;
- excessive eye strain;
- infectious diseases;
- disorders in the structure and function of the eye muscles;
- psycho-emotional overload.
Strabismus can be congenital( up to 6 months) or acquired, which manifests itself after 3 years. The congenital variant arises as a result of changes which happen at pregnancy and in sorts.
Types of the disease
Depending on the stability of the manifestation, the strabismus is divided into periodic and permanent.
By type subdivide:
- convergent strabismus in children;
There are also mixed variants, in which several types of deviation are observed at once.
Friendly strabismus is divided into several types:
- .Such a variety is manifested in children aged about 3 years. It is at this time that they begin to draw or consciously consider images. Sometimes accommodative strabismus can manifest itself in the first year of life, with a pronounced weakening of the body. Develops against the background of severe visual impairment.
- In the first or second year of life, an unaccustomed strabism develops. This is a more severe form, which has many causes at its core, and requires surgical treatment.
- There is also a paralytic strabismus. It is noted with direct damage to the oculomotor muscle or a bundle of its innervation, because of this the eye does not turn in the direction of its localization. This leads to a violation of binocular vision and bifurcation of visible objects. When one eye is closed, there is dizziness. If the cause is nerve damage, then there is a violation of accommodation, ptosis, dilated pupil.
In infancy, latent strabismus is sometimes observed. In this case, the child has no abnormalities in the normal state. Glazik begins to mow after a stressful situation, overexertion of the eyes, lack of sleep.
If the eye is being cut into the temporal region, then this phenomenon is most often accompanied by nearsightedness, and when directed to the bridge of the nose - farsightedness.
Any type of such deviation requires immediate reference to an ophthalmologist. In the smallest children, violations can manifest themselves in the form of squinting and tilting or turning the head toward the subject.
How is it treated?
Treatment should be started immediately, only in this case it can be said about the high chances of restoring normal vision.
Begin treatment with the use of eye drops and close the healthy eye for a fairly long period. This leads to the fact that the mowing eye is forced to work hard, and restore its normal position. It is necessary to open the closed eye from time to time. In the bilateral view, strabismus eyes are closed in turn. That eye, which sees worse, is sealed for a shorter period.
For the normalization of the retina, the child is recommended to play with small items - to fold cubes or puzzles.
In this pathology, the use of hardware treatment is practiced:
- The amblyicore apparatus can successfully correct the lazy eye syndrome and restore normal volumetric vision. It is prescribed for children after four years.
- Synoptophore. In addition to becoming binocular vision, it helps to measure the angle of strabismus and normalize the mobility of the eyeball. The meaning of the task in this work is that by seeing one eye, let's say a cage, and the second is a hedgehog, the child should place the hedgehog visually in a cage.
- Accommodation can be trained using the device "Brook".The child watches the symbol, which constantly moves, moving away or approaching.
If the cause of the disease is a visual impairment, then the doctor must prescribe glasses or lenses for his correction.
The complex of special exercises helps to improve the condition. But one should not conduct them independently, because they are different. And what saves vision with one kind of strabismus can do harm to another. They can be carried out at home, during the day, for 20 minutes. The total duration should be two hours.
The lack of efficacy of conservative methods and the severity of the pathology suggest that correction should be done through surgical intervention. Most often, surgical treatment is used when the child reaches six years of age. In exceptional cases, the operation can be recommended at an earlier age. Two types of such treatment are practiced - a weakening operation with an ocular muscle transplantation, and strengthening( using its shortening).
In order to prevent the development of strabismus in the baby, one should adhere to some recommendations:
- To the child's eyes do not look constantly in the same direction, it is not necessary to place objects that attract attention over the crib.
- The bed should be placed so that close people can approach it from different directions.
- Rattles should hang in such a way that the kid reaches out to them with a pen.
- You should not approach the crib sharply.
- TV can be watched not earlier than reaching the age of three.
- Limit the child's stay near the screen.
- You can not watch TV while lying down.
- Correct posture while sitting at the table will help avoid the development of strabismus.
- Books for reading in pre-school children should be with large pictures and large print.
- The computer should be familiarized with not earlier than eight years.
- In the presence of burdened heredity it is recommended to conduct a preventive examination of the ophthalmologist.
- It is necessary to protect the baby from severe stress or fright, as they can provoke the development of pathology.