• Disability in glaucoma, when it is given

    The separate direction in ophthalmology - clinical and social ophthalmology deals with the problem of social adaptation and preservation of working capacity of people with visually impaired, completely deprived of sight and disabled due to diseases of these organs. It is specialists of this sphere who carry out medical and social expertise, their competence includes the appropriation of disability due to the pathology of the organs of vision.

    At the moment, people with disabilities are those who have persistent disorders in the function of organs and systems that have occurred as a result of illnesses, injuries, defects and have led to the limitation of life. Persons with disabilities who are unable to service themselves, who are forced to turn to someone for movement, orientation in space, communication, as well as those who can not engage in work, are incapacitated. Until adulthood, an individual with disabilities is classified as disabled children, after this age he is defined as disabled.

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    During the medical and social expertise a large number of important issues are addressed to the person who has addressed the person. In particular, the types and terms of rehabilitation are determined, the true cause of pathology in the organs of vision is determined, the degree of limitation of vital activity is determined. In the process of examination, the condition of the eyesight organs is checked, the degree of visual acuity reduction, and the question of the types of labor activity limitation is decided. As a result of the commission, a verdict is issued on the degree of disability, the reasons for its occurrence, timing, and disability, and what benefits a disabled person can claim. In addition, a rehabilitative program is being developed in a recommendatory manner.

    What grounds allow a person to be assigned a certain degree of disability

    A person is recognized as disabled if there are more than two signs:

    1. A persistent disorder in the functioning of organs and systems that has arisen from diseases, injuries, birth defects or acquired defects.
    2. Full or partial restriction in self-service, orientation, movement, training and the inability to work in full.
    3. Necessity of rehabilitation measures.

    The first group of disability is assigned for several years, and the second and third - only for a year. In the future, it is necessary to undergo a reassessment and confirm the group. There are a number of diseases and conditions in which disability is given for an indefinite period.

    Disability in eye diseases

    Reducing vision and other types of disturbances in the work of the organs of vision are classified as the main functions of the body. Therefore, individuals who have complete or partial loss of vision in one or both eyes can claim a disability group.

    At the moment, there is a tendency not to give a disability with loss of vision on one eye. While a healthy eye completely copes with the load imposed on it, it has a normal visual acuity, disability is not appropriated. It is believed that a person is able to work, and therefore he has no disability. But with serious damage to one of the eyes and a decrease in vision on the second eye, the issue of disability is likely to be resolved positively.

    If the difference between the eye that sees better and the less seeing eye is 0.3 or less, disability is assigned unequivocally.

    The third group implies visual acuity of a healthy eye from 0.1 to 0.3.The second group is assigned with a visual acuity of a healthier eye from 0.1 to 0.05, with the first group of eyes seeing only 0.04, up to 0.

    Visual acuity is always determined with correction!

    It is worth saying that the degree of disruption of the visual analyzer is reconciled according to the international classifier of the ICD 10 revision. It completely gives the definitions by which the size of the impaired function is determined-visual acuity, visual fields, basic indicators of electrophysiological measurements, and the operability of the sensory apparatus. These indicators are amenable to a comprehensive assessment of the degree of restriction of the work of the body. There are three degrees of limitation.

    Disability in glaucoma

    Glaucoma is a disease of the eye, which occupies one of the first places in terms of disability. Disability in glaucoma can result from injuries and injuries to the eyes, chemical burns, due to the pathology of the iris, the lens, the cornea, inflammatory and dystrophic processes, endocrine, neurological disorders, concomitant eye diseases, and congenital anomalies in the development of the sensory apparatus.

    With respect to glaucoma, recommendations have been developed that relate to the patient's work activity. In particular, in the work process must be excluded a variety of harmful factors - vibration, ultrasonic waves, dust of air above the permissible standards, toxic substances that negatively affect the nervous tissue and blood vessels. It is forbidden to allow persons with glaucoma to labor-intensive work with significant physical exertion, lifting heavy objects, night work, work with forced pose with lowered head. Do not recommend a profession that causes neuro-emotional overload, as well as work with sudden changes in temperature.

    With a reduction in the field of view, it is forbidden for persons with this pathology to work as public transport drivers, to admit to high-altitude work.

    In addition, there are restrictions and in sports activities - any contact sports, sports exercises with lifting large weights, as well as training associated with a strong voltage of the visual analyzer and a prolonged inclination of the head are prohibited.

    Defining the degree of disability in glaucoma

    In glaucoma, the degree of disability is determined by the following criteria( ICD H40-42):

    1. degree is characterized by glaucoma of the initial stage, with a healthier eye sees 0,03-1,0, with bilateral glaucoma - 0, 5-1,0 with correction better seeing eye. With this degree there are no restrictions on life activity, there are only limitations on the medical consultation commission.
    2. degree of disability is assigned with a significant deepening of the optic nerve disc, narrowing of the visual fields from 15 to 45 ° from the side of the nose, and from other sides by 20 °.Reduction in visual acuity is 0.09-0.04 on a better seeing eye with correction. If glaucoma is unilateral, then visual acuity reduction can be 0-0.02 or concentric narrowing of the field of vision to 5 °.At this degree, 1 degree of restrictions on orientation, ability to learn and work activity is assigned, and also a group of disability is assigned.
    3. degree - narrowing of fields of vision up to 20 °, atrophy of the optic nerve or marginal depression of the optic disc. The sight from the side of the best seeing eye is from 0.04 to 0.08.Scotomas can be present central or paracentral. In this case, the degree of disability and vital activity has a second degree and 2 disability group is assigned.
    4. degree of visual impairment is almost complete blindness, at which a decrease in vision is observed up to 0. In both eyes, visual acuity is no higher than 0.03, concentric narrowing of the field of vision to 5-10 °.In this case, the process of talking is not going on, life is limited to the maximum, a person can perform only minor self-service activities.1 group of disability is assigned.

    As you can see from all of the above, you can get vision disability with glaucoma, but remember that 2 and 3 disability group is given for a period of one year, and 1 group is valid for 2 years. In the future it is necessary to undergo a reassessment. The group with a disability can change due to the progression of the process, in particular, due to narrowing of the field of vision, involvement in the process of the second eye, atrophy or gradual degeneration of the optic disc.

    Predisposing factors of disability in glaucoma

    Among the predisposing or major factors that can lead to disability in glaucoma, the following are identified:

    • Age is over 65 years;
    • A remote place of residence from a specialized ophthalmologic medical institution;
    • Glaucomatous process in 2 and 3 stages. The glottis at the glaucoma at these stages has a depression in the area of ​​the optic nerve disk more than 1/6 of its diameter, while the disc itself has a gray tinge.
    • If the process becomes heavier and the second eye is involved in the process, the probability of disability increases dramatically;
    • The longer the glaucoma is in decompensation, the greater the likelihood of disability;
    • Most often after surgical treatment, the glaucomatous process is stabilized, but sometimes there is a need for another operation, and sometimes there is a transition to the next group of disabilities;
    • The presence of concomitant ophthalmic and ecclesiastical diseases in most cases leads to deterioration of the condition and reduction of visual acuity. The most damaging effect is the pathology of the cardiovascular system.

    How to live with glaucoma

    To prevent further deterioration of vision, the patient should know that it is not possible for glaucoma. First of all, you should forget about bad habits, change your lifestyle with glaucoma, approaches to nutrition, and even if you need work.

    1. Do not use a large amount of liquid at a time. Optimum - no more than a glass at a time tea, juices, compotes, and first courses up to one and a half liters.
    2. The diet should exclude salty, smoked and fried foods that can provoke thirst and increase fluid intake. At this age, meat is recommended to be consumed not more often 3-4 times a week, but it is desirable to increase the amount of vitamins and minerals at the expense of vegetables and fruits. Food should be enriched with dietary fiber to prevent constipation - additional efforts during defecation can cause increased intraocular pressure.
    3. Smoking is strictly prohibited, nicotine has an extremely negative effect on the optic nerve and leads to a sharp deterioration in the condition of the visual analyzer.
    4. When homesteading is prohibited to be with the head down, watering plants should only be carried out with a hose, lifting the weight more than 5 -6 kilograms is also prohibited. In bright and sunny days, you should use protective or medical glasses with green glasses. But glasses with darkened glasses are forbidden.
    5. A housework that is available by age is permitted, but there remains a restriction on a long stay with the head down.
    6. TV viewing should take place in a well-lit room.
    7. During sleep and rest, it is necessary to raise the head end with pillows. It is not recommended to close windows with thick curtains that prevent the penetration of natural light.
    8. When consulting or correcting treatment for concomitant diseases, the doctor should always be warned about the presence of glaucoma. This is due to the fact that with this disease, it is strictly forbidden to use drugs that contain atropine.
    9. Visits to the ophthalmologist must be done quarterly. In addition, a patient with glaucoma should independently monitor blood pressure, and in the clinic, take blood tests to monitor the prothrombin index and the lipid content in the blood.
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